[*] Professor of Law, Georgetown University Law Center. This Article is the published version of the Mason Ladd Lecture, delivered at the Florida State University College of Law on April 1, 1996. I am grateful to Ann McGinley and Jeff Stempel for comments on the lecture and later drafts of this Article. I also thank the law library staff at the Florida State University College of Law for assisting me with locating many Florida sources, and the staff of the Florida Department of State, Division of Archives, for facilitating my use of the Johns Committee papers, series 1486. Return to text.

[1] See IRWIN F. GELLMAN, SECRET AFFAIRS: FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT, CORDELL HULL, AND SUMNER WELLES 60 (1995). Return to text.

[2] See id. at 130-31; see also David K. Johnson, "Homosexual Citizens": Washington's Gay Community Confronts the Civil Service, WASH. HIST., Fall-Winter 1994-95, at 50. Return to text.

[3] See GELLMAN, supra note 1, at 236-37. Return to text.

[4] FOR THE PRESIDENT: PERSONAL AND SECRET, CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND WILLIAM C. BULLITT 513 (Orville H. Bullitt ed., 1972). Return to text.

[5] Id. Return to text.

[6] Id. at 513-14. Return to text.

[7] See id. at 513. Return to text.

[8] See id. Return to text.

[9] See id. at 514-16. Return to text.

[10] Id. at 515. Return to text.

[11] See EVE KOSOFSKY SEDGWICK, EPISTEMOLOGY OF THE CLOSET (1990); Robert Dawidoff, In My Father's House Are Many Closets, in CHRISTOPHER STREET, Apr. 1989, at 28-41. Return to text.

[12] ROGER AUSTEN, PLAYING THE GAME: THE HOMOSEXUAL NOVEL IN AMERICA 110 (1977) (quoting John Burns discussing Lucifer with a Book). The central character, Guy Hudson, is a boys' school instructor of intense but ambiguous sexuality. The only clue to his preferences is a lewd Renaissance print of a man having sex with another man and a woman. This print is stored in Hudson's dormitory closet. See JOHN HORNE BURNS, LUCIFER WITH A BOOK 105-06 (1949). Other characters make homosexual advances to Hudson by seeking to bring the print out of the closet. See, e.g., id. at 132-33. Return to text.

[13] See GORE VIDAL, THE CITY AND THE PILLAR 154 (rev. ed. 1965). "I've been invited to a faggot party," matinee idol Ronald Shaw told Jim Willard. "I'll take you. It can be your coming-out party in New York." Id. Return to text.

[14] See Marlin Prentiss, Are Homosexuals Security Risks?, ONE, Dec. 1955, at 4. Prentiss explained the ironies of denying homosexuals security clearances: "for where among us breathes there a man—or woman—who does not have his own personal Achilles heel—his own private skeleton in the closet?" Id. Return to text.

[15] FLA. LEGIS. INVESTIGATION COMM., HOMOSEXUALITY AND CITIZENSHIP IN FLORIDA 14 (1964) (available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 1, Tallahassee, Fla.). Return to text.

[16] See Kenji Yoshino, Suspect Symbols: The Literary Argument for Heightened Scrutiny for Gays, 96 COLUM. L. REV. 1753, 1794-1802 (1996). Return to text.

[17] See generally Kenji Yoshino, The Trojan Horse and AIDS (Feb. 1996) (Yale Law School essay, on file with author) (drawing from Monique Wittig, The Trojan Horse, in ESSAYS ON WOMAN (Lucy Gelber & Romaeus Leuven eds., Freda Mary Oben trans., 1987)). Return to text.

[18] I focus on Florida partly because its anti-homosexual terror is so well documented; the Johns Committee papers are available at the Florida Archives. I also focus on Florida partly because it is so diverse—being a southern state that even in the 1950s had big (Dade County and Miami/Miami Beach) and medium-sized metropolitan areas (Hillsborough County and Tampa) as well as rural areas (northern part of the state). Nestled in traditionalist rural upstate are two university communities, Florida State University and the University of Florida. Because they had noticeable homosexual populations surrounded by traditionalist peoples, the university towns and the metropolitan areas became situses of homosexual/traditionalist culture clashes. Return to text.

[19] See William N. Eskridge, Jr., Law and the Construction of the Homosexual: American Regulation of Same-Sex Intimacy, 1880-1946, 82 IOWA L. REV. (forthcoming 1997); Estelle Freedman, "Uncontrolled Desires": The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960, 74 J. AM. HIST. 83, 85-86 (1987). Return to text.

[20] See generally ALLAN BÉRUBÉ, COMING OUT UNDER FIRE (1992) (discussing gay American soldiers in World War II); JOHN D'EMILIO, SEXUAL POLITICS, SEXUAL COMMUNITIES: THE MAKING OF A HOMOSEXUAL MINORITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 1940-1970 (1983) (discussing the history of homosexuality in American Society); George Chauncey, Jr., The Postwar Sex Crime Panic, in TRUE STORIES FROM THE AMERICAN PAST 160 (William Graebner ed., 1993) (discussing the "sex crime panic" that occurred after World War II). Return to text.

[21] See, e.g., DAVID M. OSHINSKY, A CONSPIRACY SO IMMENSE: THE WORLD OF JOE MCCARTHY 310-11, 328-29 (1983) (reactionary Senator McCarthy, long a bachelor, rumored to be homosexual); NICHOLAS VON HOFFMAN, CITIZEN COHN (1988) (McCarthy's chief counsel Roy Cohn was a closeted homosexual); ANTHONY SUMMERS, OFFICIAL AND CONFIDENTIAL: THE SECRET LIFE OF J. EDGAR HOOVER (1993) (FBI Director Hoover was a cross-dresser and possible homosexual; his only emotionally intimate relationship was with his longtime companion Clyde Tolson). Return to text.

[22] FLA. LEGIS. INVESTIGATION COMM., supra note 15, at 13. Return to text.

[23] See infra Appendix 2A. This chart displays the rich array of state felonies, state misdemeanors, and municipal offenses regulating citizens of San Francisco, California, in 1950. Although this list is longer than those facing residents of states and cities with less sexual diversity than California and San Francisco, it reflects the comprehensive manner in which state and local governments regulated sexuality in the postwar period. Return to text.

[24] See D'EMILIO, supra note 20, at 24-25. Return to text.

[25] D.C. CODE ANN. § 22-2701 (1940) (inviting for purposes of public prostitution); see also id. § 22-1107 (unlawful assembly, profane and indecent language); id. § 22-1112 (indecent exposure); cf. S. REP. NO. 1377 (1948), reprinted in 1948 U.S.C.C.A.N. 1714, 1715-16 (summarizing pre-1948 D.C. law). Return to text.

[26] Ch. 428, 62 Stat. 346 (1948). Return to text.

[27] See Freedman, supra note 19; see also Chauncey, supra note 20. Return to text.

[28] J. Edgar Hoover, How Safe Is Your Daughter?, AM. MAGAZINE, July 1947, at 32. Return to text.

[29] Id. Return to text.

[30] See Freedman, supra note 19, at 94. The article discusses this 1946 letter from one homosexual man to another after a child murder in Chicago:

I suppose you read about the kidnapping and killing of the little girl in Chicago—I noticed tonight that they "thought" (in their damn self-righteous way) that perhaps a pervert had done it and they rounded up all the females [effeminate homosexuals]—they blame us for everything and incidentally it is more in the limelight everyday—why they don't round us all up and kill us I don't know.
Id. Return to text.

[31] See Miller Act § 101, 62 Stat. at 346 (repealed 1995). Return to text.

[32] Id. §§ 101, 103, 62 Stat. at 346, 347 (repealed 1995). Return to text.

[33] See, e.g., CAL. PENAL CODE § 288 (West 1956) (repealed 1976) (authorizing a life sentence for any defendant who performs anal or oral sex with children under the age of 14). Return to text.

[34] Arizona, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, Texas, and Washington. Typical of these was an enactment by the Texas Legislature:

[W]hoever shall use his mouth on the sexual parts of another human being for the purpose of having carnal copulation, or who shall voluntarily permit the use of his own sexual parts in a lewd or lascivious manner by any minor, . . . shall be confined in the penitentiary or not less than two (2) nor more than fifteen (15) years.
Act effective Aug. 9, 1943, ch. 112, § 1, 1943 Tex. Gen. Laws 194, 194 (West) (repealed 1983). Return to text.

[35] Act effective June 10, 1943, ch. 21974, § 1, 1943 Fla. Laws 583, 583-84 (current version at FLA. STAT. § 800.04 (1995)) . Return to text.

[36] See Act effective May 11, 1951, ch. 26580, § 1, 1951 Fla. Laws 234, Return to text.

[37] See Minnesota ex rel. Pearson v. Probate Court, 309 U.S. 270, 277 (1940) (upholding Minnesota's law against "psychopathic personalities"). For a list of these and other sexual psychopath statutes enacted by 1961, see infra Appendix 4. Return to text.

[38] See Miller Act, ch. 428, §§ 201-208, 62 Stat. 346, 347-50 (1948). Return to text.

[39] D.C. CODE ANN. § 22-3503(1) (1948). Return to text.

[40] Id. § 22-3508. Return to text.

[41] See CAL. DEP'T OF MENTAL HYGIENE, FINAL REPORT ON CALIFORNIA SEXUAL DEVIATION RESEARCH (1954); FLA. LEGIS. INVESTIGATION COMM., supra note 15; ILL. COMM'N ON SEX OFFENDERS, REPORT OF THE ILLINOIS COMMISSION ON SEX OFFENDERS TO THE 68TH GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS (1953); GOV.'S STUDY COMM'N ON THE DEVIATED CRIMINAL SEX OFFENDER, REPORT (Mich. 1951); MINN. LEGIS. INTERIM COMM'N ON PUB. WELFARE LAWS, SEX PSYCHOPATH LAWS REPORT (1959); INTERIM COMM'N OF THE STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE TO STUDY THE CAUSE AND PREVENTION OF SERIOUS SEX CRIMES, REPORT (1949); PAUL W. TAPPAN, N.J. COMM'N ON THE HABITUAL SEX OFFENDER, THE HABITUAL SEX OFFENDER: REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION ON THE HABITUAL SEX OFFENDER (1953); BERNARD C. GLUECK, RESEARCH PROJECT FOR THE STUDY AND TREATMENT OF PERSONS CONVICTED OF CRIMES INVOLVING SEXUAL ABERRATIONS, FINAL REPORT (1955) (New York) [hereinafter N.Y. RESEARCH PROJECT]; OR. LEGIS. INTERIM COMM. TO STUDY SEX CRIME PREVENTION, REPORT (1956); JOINT STATE GOV'T COMM'N TO THE GEN. ASSEMBLY OF THE COMMONW. OF PA., SEX OFFENDERS: A REPORT OF THE JOINT STATE GOVERNMENT COMMISSION TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA (1951); COMM'N TO STUDY SEX OFFENSES TO THE GOV. AND THE GEN. ASSEMBLY OF VA., THE SEX OFFENDER AND THE CRIMINAL LAW (1951) (all on file with author). Return to text.

[42] See CAL. DEP'T OF MENTAL HYGIENE, supra note 41; ILL. COMM'N ON SEX OFFENDER, supra note 41; N.J. COMM'N ON THE HABITUAL SEX OFFENDER, supra note 41; N.Y. RESEARCH PROJECT, supra note 41. Return to text.

[43] See infra Appendix 4; Karl M. Bowman & Bernice Engle, Synopses of Special Sex Psychopath Laws—United States, in CAL. DEP'T OF MENTAL HYGIENE, supra note 41, at 41; Alan A. Swanson, Sexual Psychopath Statutes: Summary and Analysis, 21 CRIM. L. COMMENTS AND ABSTRACTS 215 (1960). Return to text.

[44] See infra Appendix 4. Sixteen statutes required that the offender be convicted of some crime or of a specific sex crime before holding a sexual psychopath hearing. See id. Seven statutes required that the offender be charged with some crime or a specific sex crime. See id. Return to text.

[45] See Swanson, supra note 43, at 217-18. Most jurisdictions did not permit the defendant to opt for a jury trial or guarantee the defendant counsel or other assurances of criminal process. See id. Some jurisdictions did not even conduct a judicial hearing and committed people simply on the basis of medical affidavits. See id. Return to text.

[46] See FLA. STAT. § 800.04 (1949) (targeting defendants convicted of sodomy (the "crime against nature"), lewdness, rape, and attempts to commit those crimes when children are the victims). Return to text.

[47] See infra Appendix 4. Return to text.

[48] See TAPPAN, supra note 41, at 28-29. Return to text.

[49] See id. Return to text.

[50] See JONATHAN KATZ, GAY AMERICAN HISTORY: LESBIANS AND GAY MEN IN THE U.S.A. 134-207 (1976) (containing copies of graphic original documents and descriptions of anti-homosexual medical procedures and treatment). Return to text.

[51] See id. Return to text.

[52] The account that follows is drawn from exposes of Atascadero in the early 1970s. See John LaStala, Atascadero: Dachau for Queers?, THE ADVOCATE, Apr. 26, 1972, at 11, 13 (LaStala was an inmate in 1955); Rob Cole, Inside Atascadero IV: Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Treatment, THE ADVOCATE, Oct. 11, 1972, at 5. Return to text.

[53] LaStala, supra note 52, at 11 (quoting Dr. Walter Freedman). Return to text.

[54] Id. at 13. Return to text.

[55] See LOS ANGELES, CAL., CODE ch. V, § 52.39(a) (1955). Return to text.

[56] See id. A convicted person who changed residences was required to notify the chief of police. See id. § 52.40. Return to text.

[57] See id. § 52.38(d). This section also provided that one was a "convicted person" if after 1945 the person was "convicted in any place other than the State of California of any offense which, if committed in this State, would have been punishable" under the lewd vagrancy law. Id.; see also CAL. PENAL CODE § 647(5) (1955) (lewd vagrancy law). Return to text.

[58] See Act effective Sept. 19, 1947, ch. 1124, 1947 Cal. Stat. 256.2 (codified as amended at CAL. PENAL CODE § 290 (West Supp. 1996)). The 1947 registration law was amended in 1949 and 1950 to target an expanded array of sex offenders, including those convicted of lewd vagrancy. Return to text.

[59] See Are You or Have You Ever Been a Homosexual? ONE, Apr. 1953, at 5-8. Return to text.

[60] Act of June 29, 1953, ch. 159, § 202(a)(1), 67 Stat. 90, 92 (codified at D.C. CODE ANN. § 22-1112(a) (1996)). Return to text.

[61] See H.R. REP. NO. 82-538, at 19 (1951); H.R. REP. NO. 83-514, at 4 (1953); see also 99 CONG. REC. 6207 (1953). Return to text.

[62] Those states were Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Wyoming. See Note, Private Consensual Homosexual Behavior: The Crime and Its Enforcement, 70 YALE L.J. 623, 635 app. (1960) (listing statutes). Return to text.

[63] See BUREAU OF POLICE, CITY OF PHILADELPHIA, ANNUAL REPORT 31 (1950) (listing 514 total arrests, including 287 arrests for sodomy or solicitation, 49 for rape and indecent assault, 31 for public indecency, and 28 for crimes with minors); cf. LOS ANGELES POLICE DEP'T, 1952 ANNUAL REPORT 33 (listing 10,321 total arrests for 1952, including 1689 for "sex perversion" and 2087 for prostitution). Return to text.

[64] See Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Feb. 1956, at 12. Portland's "Buster Squad," for example, specialized in breaking up "rings" of men having sex with boys. Return to text.

[65] See Jon J. Gallo et al., The Consenting Adult Homosexual and the Law: An Empirical Study of Enforcement and Administration in Los Angeles County, 13 UCLA L. REV. 643 (1966) (studying Los Angeles County arrests and prosecutions). This article is considered to be the most detailed study of police enforcement techniques during this period. Return to text.

[66] See infra Appendix 1B. Return to text.

[67] See, e.g., People v. Spaulding, 254 P. 614, 615 (Cal. Dist. Ct. App. 1927) ("[M]erely engaging in a scheme for the purpose of detecting, exposing, and punishing crime does not constitute one an accomplice."). Decoys were inappropriate for enforcing the serious felonies, because the law required penetration. Hence, the officer would not be able to obtain evidence without becoming an accomplice in the forbidden act, i.e., inserting his penis in the defendant or receiving the defendant's penis in him.

Consider the following arrest and complaint figures for sex crimes in New York City for 1958-1966, compiled from the New York City Police Department's annual reports:


Arrests (Complaints)
Non-Rape Sex Felonies

Arrests (Complaints)
Sex Misdemeanors

Arrests (Complaints)
Sex Offenses/Degenerates

1958
419 (468)
2103 (2693)
1142 (776)
1959
475 (494)
2206 (2845)
937 (642)
1960
436 (476)
2341 (2829)
714 (483)
1961
443 (468)
2313 (2800)
790 (567)
1962
425 (447)
2464 (2838)
775 (563)
1963
430 (NA)
2332 (NA)
892 (NA)
1964
433 (434)
2266 (2288)
760 (669)
1965
440 (456)
2256 (2834)
799 (749)
1966
425 (517)
2275 (3856)
363 (402)

"Non-Rape Sex Felonies" included forcible sodomy and sodomy with a minor; "Sex Misdemeanors" included consensual sodomy; "Sex Offenses/Degenerates" included homosexual overtures only. Note that there were usually many more "degeneracy" arrests than complainants. Return to text.

[68] See Gallo et al., supra note 65, at 707 n.138. This study examined 493 felony arrests against men having sex in the following locales: public restrooms, 274; vehicles, 108; private residences, 24; jail, 18; public parks, 17; steambaths, 15; public beaches, 11; other or unknown, 26. See id. Return to text.

[69] See id. at 707-09. Return to text.

[70] See id. Return to text.

[71] See Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Apr.-May 1956, at 14 (noting that a Palo Alto police stakeout of a depot restroom netted 23 men, including seven Stanford students and a teacher, and charged eight with felony sex perversion, or oral sex); Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Feb. 1958, at 18 (describing an Oklahoma City stakeout of a Lincoln Park Zoo restroom that netted four men charged with committing a crime against nature, and six with unidentified charges); Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, May 1960, at 19-20 (discussing an Ann Arbor police six-month stakeout of University of Michigan restrooms resulting in 26 arrests, including 14 students and a professor). Return to text.

[72] See People v. Earl, 31 Cal. Rptr. 76, 77 (Dist. Ct. App. 1963). Return to text.

[73] See Abraham Goldstein, The State and the Accused: Balance of Advantage in Criminal Procedure, 69 YALE L.J. 1149, 1163-65 (1960); Richard C. Donnelly, Judicial Control of Informants, Spies, Stool Pigeons, and Agent Provocateurs, 60 YALE L.J. 1091, 1093 (1951); Harold Jacobs, Note, Decoy Enforcement of Homosexual Laws, 112 U. PA. L. REV. 259, 259-60 (1963). Return to text.

[74] See Jacobs, supra note 73, at 259- Return to text.

[75] See id. Return to text.

[76] See, e.g., JESS STEARN, THE SIXTH MAN 168 (1961). Return to text.

[77] Frank C. Wood, Jr., The Homosexual and the Police, ONE, May 1963, at 21. Return to text.

[78] See id. at 21-22. Return to text.

[79] Dale Jennings, To Be Accused Is to Be Guilty, ONE, Jan. 1953, at 11-12. Return to text.

[80] See id. at 12. Return to text.

[81] See id. Return to text.

[82] See id. Return to text.

[83] Id. Return to text.

[84] Id. Return to text.

[85] See id. at 13. Return to text.

[86] See Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Sept. 1955, at 9. Return to text.

[87] See Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Aug. 1955, at 11. Police arrested San Francisco's "Bunny" Breckenridge, a cross-dressing and probably transsexual man, in a sweep of the Sea Cow bar in 1955. A magistrate dismissed the vagrancy charge perhaps because Breckenridge was a multi-millionaire. See id. Return to text.

[88] See Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Dec. 1955, at 12. Return to text.

[89] See Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Apr.-May 1956, at 14. Return to text.

[90] See Dal McIntire et al., Tangents, ONE, Dec. 1961, at 16. Return to text.

[91] Charles K. Robinson, The Raid, ONE, July 1960, at 26. Return to text.

[92] Id. Return to text.

[93] Id. Return to text.

[94] See id. Return to text.

[95] Id. at 27. Return to text.

[96] See Dal McIntire, Tangents: Trouble in Tampa, ONE, Oct.-Nov. 1957, at 18-19. Return to text.

[97] Id. at 19. Return to text.

[98] I have copies of cross-dressing ordinances from places such as Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Charleston, West Virginia; Cheyenne, Wyoming; Chicago, Illinois; Columbia, Missouri; Dallas, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Detroit, Michigan; Houston, Texas, and many others. See Eskridge, supra note 19, app. 6 (listing references). Miami's ordinance, excerpted infra Appendix 5, is typical of municipal cross-dressing laws. Return to text.

[99] See, e.g., People v. Gillespi, 202 N.E.2d 565, 565 (N.Y. 1964) (finding the defendant guilty of the statute for wearing women's clothes and makeup). Return to text.

[100] See generally Nan D. Hunter, Gender Disguise and the Law (1990) (unpublished draft, on file with author). Return to text.

[101] See DETROIT, MICH., CODE § 39-1-35 (1944) (deeming it illegal "for any member of the male sex to appear in or upon any street . . . or other public way or place or in, upon or about any private premises frequented by or open to the public in the dress of the opposite sex"). Return to text.

[102] See id. § 39-1-61. Return to text.

[103] See infra Appendices 1A, 1C. Return to text.

[104] See infra Appendix 1A. Return to text.

[105] See infra Appendix 1A. Return to text.

[106] The suggestion for these numbers originated from my analysis of District sodomy complaints, recounted in Appendix 1A. Sodomy arrests, for which I have no numbers, would yield lower figures for sex with minors or with women. To roughly determine whether this suggestion could be generalized, I read all the cases reported by the West National Reporter System under the category "Sodomy" for the years 1946 to 1969. The results were:


Man-Man (W-W)

Man-Woman

Man-Boy

Man-Girl

Total
93 (2)
72
121
57
Calif.
23 (0)
30
22
9

Because this sample is skewed by appellate court selection bias and the vagaries of the West reporting system, I cannot determine absolute percentages. I do conclude, however, that during this period consenting same-sex couples did not account for most sodomy arrests. Return to text.

[107] For 1950s New York City, yearly arrests for sodomy ranged between 100 and 200 (Appendix 1A) while arrests for degeneracy were typically 10 to 20 times those figures (Appendix 1C). The San Francisco record of sex offense arrests between 1945 to 1950 suggests a multiplier of up to 20. See Appendix 2B.

The UCLA study also found that 439 cases in the Los Angeles County Superior Court for a three-year period (1962-64), or 146 cases per year, alleged violations of the state sodomy and oral perversion statutes. See Gallo et al., supra note 65, at 799. The study found that Los Angeles processed 2994 defendants in the Los Angeles Municipal Courts between May 1964 and April 1965, against whom the state alleged misdemeanors for lewd vagrancy, public indecency, and obscenity. Taking into account that the 439 cases involved more than 439 defendants and that the sodomy/oral perversion sample involved a larger county-wide jurisdiction, the conclusion is that 20 charges for homosexual solicitation or expression exist for every charge of homosexual anal or oral sex. Return to text.

[108] See Ralph Slovenko & Cyril Phillips, Psychosexuality and the Criminal Law, 15 VAND. L. REV. 797, 800 n.9 (1962) (noting that in 1960 New Orleans, 27% of the rape cases were prosecuted compared to 60% of the crime-against-nature cases; none of the rape cases resulted in convictions, while 20% of the crime against nature cases did bring convictions). The New York City degenerate incarceration rate towered 30 times above that for defendants convicted in the Magistrates' Courts for other offenses. See infra Appendix 1C. Although only episodic data exists, the incarceration rate appears to have been higher than any other sex offender charges with offenses rather than misdemeanors or felonies. Return to text.

[109] Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Apr. 1960, at 15. Return to text.

[110] Id. Return to text.

[111] See JOHN GERASSI, THE BOYS OF BOISE: FUROR, VICE, AND FOLLY IN AN AMERICAN CITY 4 (1966); see also Larsen v. State, 337 P.2d 1 (Idaho 1959). Return to text.

[112] GERASSI, supra note 111, at 2. Return to text.

[113] See id. at 126. Return to text.

[114] See id. Return to text.

[115] See Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Jan. 1956, at 12. Return to text.

[116] See GERASSI, supra note 111, at xvi-xvii. Return to text.

[117] Bureau of Public Information, Miami Junks the Constitution, ONE, Jan. 1954, at 16. Return to text.

[118] Id. at 19. Return to text.

[119] Id. Return to text.

[120] Id. at 18. Return to text.

[121] Id. at 18-19. Return to text.

[122] Id. Return to text.

[123] See Lyn Pedersen, Miami Hurricane, ONE, Nov. 1954, at 6 (quoting Headley: "If I ran all the homosexuals out of town, members of some of the best families would lead the parade."). Return to text.

[124] See Bureau of Public Information, supra note 117, at 20. Return to text.

[125] Id. at 5 (discussing Miami Herald articles). Return to text.

[126] See id. at 8. Return to text.

[127] See MIAMI, FLA., ORDINANCE § 51-35 (1954) (codified at MIAMI, FLA., CODE § 4-13 (1957)); see also infra Appendix 5. Return to text.

[128] See MIAMI, FLA., ORDINANCE § 55-21 (1956) (codified at MIAMI, FLA., CODE § 43-18 (1957)); see also infra Appendix 5. Return to text.

[129] See Pedersen, supra note 123, at 6. Return to text.

[130] Id. Return to text.

[131] Id. Return to text.

[132] See id. Return to text.

[133] See id. Return to text.

[134] See Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Aug. 1961, at 24. Return to text.

[135] See Lyn Pedersen, Miami's New Type of Witch Hunt, ONE, Apr.-May 1956, at 6. Return to text.

[136] Id. at 7. Return to text.

[137] Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Oct.-Nov. 1957, at 19. Return to text.

[138] Id. at 19. Return to text.

[139] Id. Return to text.

[140] See id. Return to text.

[141] Id. Return to text.

[142] Id. Return to text.

[143] See id. Return to text.

[144] See Deposition of [name blackened out], Special Investigator, Twelfth Judicial Circuit, by Mark R. Hawes, Chief Counsel, Fla. Legis. Investigation Comm. 4 (Feb. 6, 1959) (available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 7, Tallahassee, Fla). Return to text.

[145] See Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, Aug. 1961, at 24-25. Return to text.

[146] See id. at 24. Return to text.

[147] See id. at 24-25. Return to text.

[148] See id. Return to text.

[149] Id. at 25. Return to text.

[150] See id. Return to text.

[151] Id. Return to text.

[152] Id. Return to text.

[153] Memorandum from Dade County Sheriff's Office, Opening Case No. 71821 C (Nov. 1960) (available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 13, Tallahassee, Fla.) [hereinafter Dade County Sheriff's Memorandum]; officials created a redacted form of the diary consisting of 24 pages of single-spaced typescript. See Redacted Diary, Jan.-Nov. 1960 (available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1436, carton 13, Tallahassee, Fla.). Return to text.

[154] See Dade County Sheriff's Memorandum, supra note 153, at 3. Return to text.

[155] Id. Return to text.

[156] See id. Return to text.

[157] Id. at 7. Return to text.

[158] See Memorandum from R.J. Strickland, Chief Investigator, Fla. Legis. Investigation Comm., to William G. O'Neill, Chairman, Fla. Legis. Investigation Comm. (May 30, 1961) (available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 1, Tallahassee, Fla.); Memorandum from T.A. Buchanan, Chief, Detective Division, Dade County Metro Dep't of Pub. Safety, to Thomas J. Kelly, Sheriff, Dade County Metro Dep't of Pub. Safety (June 3, 1961) (available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 1, Tallahassee, Fla.). Return to text.

[159] See Dade County Sheriff's Memorandum, supra note 153, at 3. Return to text.

[160] Dal McIntire et al., supra note 90, at 7. Return to text.

[161] Dem., Starke, 1936-53; 1955-68. Return to text.

[162] See discussion infra Part I.B.1-2. Return to text.

[163] BÉRUBÉ, supra note 20, at 139. Return to text.

[164] See id. Return to text.

[165] See id. at 147. Return to text.

[166] U.S. Army Surgeon General, Disposition of Overt Cases of Homosexuality, in ARMY MEDICAL BULLETIN NUMBER 66, at 83 (1943). Army Regulation 615-368 codified this philosophy in 1945. See U.S. WAR DEP'T, ARMY REG. NO. 615-368, Enlisted Men: Discharge—Undesirable Traits of Character 1-4 (Mar. 7, 1945) (amended Apr. 10, 1945). Return to text.

[167] U.S. WAR DEP'T, CIRCULAR NUMBER 3: HOMOSEXUALS (1943), quoted in BÉRUBÉ, supra note 20, at 142. Return to text.

[168] See id. Return to text.

[169] See U.S. Army Surgeon General, supra note 166. Return to text.

[170] U.S. WAR DEP'T, supra note 166, at ¶ 2.b.1-2. Return to text.

[172] See Íemoranäum f See Memorandum from Birge Holt, Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. War Dep't, and Ruby E. Herman, Captain, U.S. War Dep't, to the Acting Inspector General (July 29, 1944) (available at Nat'l Archives, Record Group 159 [Office of Army Inspector General], file 333.9 [3rd WAC Training Center]) [hereinafter Holt & Herman Memorandum]. Return to text.

[173] Letter from Mrs. Josephine Churchill to Commanding General, Judge Advocate, War Dep't (May 12, 1944), reprinted in Holt & Herman Memorandum, supra note 172, app. Return to text.

[174] Id. Return to text.

[175] See Holt & Herman Memorandum, supra note 172, at 33-34. Return to text.

[176] See id. Return to text.

[177] Memorandum from Major General Edward F. Witsell, Acting Adjutant General, U.S. War Dep't, to Commanding Officers Having General Court-Martial Jurisdiction (Oct. 31, 1945); see also U.S. WAR DEP'T, CIRCULAR NUMBER 85 (Mar. 23, 1946) (confirming same policy); U.S. ARMY, ARMY REG. 615-368 ¶ 3 (May 14, 1947) (representing one codified form of the policy). Return to text.

[178] See Before Stonewall: The Making of a Lesbian and Gay Community (PBS television production, 1984) (containing a video interview with Sergeant Phelps). Return to text.

[179] See id. Return to text.

[180] See id. Return to text.

[181] Id. Return to text.

[182] Id. Return to text.

[183] Id. Return to text.

[184] Johnson, supra note 2, at 49. Return to text.

[185] See infra Appendix 3. Return to text.

[186] See BÉRUBÉ, supra note 20, at 262, 354 n.14. The absolute per annum numbers were higher during the war, but the numbers as a percentage of total troop strength were higher after the war because the armed forces downsized dramatically. The rate of discharge fell during the Korean War, when once more the armed forces sacrificed the anti-homosexual policy to needs for troop strength. Return to text.

[187] See Memorandum from Dep't of Defense to Sec'ys of Army, Navy, & Air Force 1 (Oct. 11, 1949) [hereinafter DOD Memorandum], reprinted in REPORT OF THE BOARD APPOINTED TO PREPARE AND SUBMIT RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY FOR THE REVISION OF POLICIES, PROCEDURES AND DIRECTIVES DEALING WITH HOMOSEXUALS app. 5 (1957) [hereinafter CRITTENDEN REPORT]; Louis J. West & Albert J. Glass, Sexual Behavior and the Military Law, in SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND THE LAW 250, 256 (Ralph Slovenko ed., 1965). Return to text.

[188] DOD Memorandum, supra note 187, at 1. Return to text.

[189] See id. Return to text.

[190] Id. at 2. Return to text.

[191] Id. Return to text.

[192] See id. at 2-3. Return to text.

[193] Johnson, supra note 2, at 47. Return to text.

[194] Id. at 50. Return to text.

[195] See id. at 49; NEIL MILLER, OUT OF THE PAST: GAY AND LESBIAN HISTORY FROM 1869 TO THE PRESENT 274-75 (1995). Return to text.

[196] Miller, supra note 195, at 259 (quoting Gabrielson newsletter). Return to text.

[197] See SUBCOMM. ON INVESTIGATIONS OF THE SEN. COMM. ON EXPENDITURES IN THE EXEC. DEP'TS, INTERIM REPORT: EMPLOYMENT OF HOMOSEXUALS AND OTHER SEX PERVERTS IN GOVERNMENT 8 (1950) [hereinafter EMPLOYMENT OF HOMOSEXUALS IN GOVERNMENT]. Return to text.

[198] See id. Return to text.

[199] See infra Appendix 3. Return to text.

[200] See EMPLOYMENT OF HOMOSEXUALS IN GOVERNMENT, supra note 197, at 1. Return to text.

[201] Id. Return to text.

[202] See id. at 3-8. Return to text.

[203] Id. at 3. Return to text.

[204] Id. at 4. Return to text.

[205] Id. Return to text.

[206] See id. at 1. Return to text.

[207] See id. at 8. Return to text.

[208] Letter from James E. Hatcher, Chief, Investigations Division, U.S. Civil Service Commission, to Donald W. Cory (May 3, 1951), reprinted in DONALD W. CORY, THE HOMOSEXUAL IN AMERICA 269 (Arno Press 1975) (1958); see also Memorandum from D.J. Brennan, Jr., to W.C. Sullivan, Re: Mattachine Society of Washington (Dec. 24, 1963) (on file with author) (quoting the Director of the Bureau of Personnel Investigation: "Persons about whom there is evidence that they have engaged in or solicited others to engage in homosexual or sexually perverted acts with them without evidence of rehabilitation are not suitable for Federal employment."). Return to text.

[209] EMPLOYMENT OF HOMOSEXUALS IN GOVERNMENT, supra note 197, at 9. The most sensitive agencies—the FBI, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the State Department—subjected applicants to complete personal history investigations. See id. Return to text.

[210] See infra Appendix 3. Return to text.

[211] EMPLOYMENT OF HOMOSEXUALS IN GOVERNMENT, supra note 197, at 10. Return to text.

[212] Id. Return to text.

[213] See id. at 13. Return to text.

[214] Ch. 29, 39 Stat. 874 (1917). Return to text.

[215] See, e.g., In re J—, 2 I. & N. Dec. 533 (Board of Immigration Appeals, April 2, 1946) (deportation for conviction under Massachusetts' "unnatural and lascivious act" law); In re Z—, 2 I. & N. Dec. 316 (Board of Immigration Appeals, June 9, 1945) (exclusion for conviction under Canada's gross indecency law). Return to text.

[216] Immigration Act of 1917 § 3, 39 Stat. at 875. Return to text.

[217] See, e.g., In the Matter of V—, 2 I. & N. Dec. 127 (Board of Immigration Appeals, July 22, 1944) (excluding a 35-year-old Canadian citizen who wished to join the U.S. Army); In the Matter of M—, 2 I. & N. Dec. 694 (Board of Immigration Appeals, July 24, 1946) (deporting a 45-year-old female native of the United Kingdom). Return to text.

[218] See S. 2550, 82d Cong. (1952). Return to text.

[219] See id. § 241(a)(6). Return to text.

[220] Id. Return to text.

[221] H.R. 1365, 82d Cong., reprinted in 1952 U.S.C.C.A.N. 1653, 1701; see also S. REP. NO. 1137, at 9 (1950):

The provision of S. 716 . . . which specifically excluded homosexuals and sex perverts as a separate excludable class does not appear in the instant bill. The Public Health Service has advised that the provision for the exclusion of aliens afflicted with psychopathic personality or a mental defect which appears in the instant bill is sufficiently broad to provide for the exclusion of homosexuals and sex perverts. This change of nomenclature is not to be construed in any way as modifying the intent to exclude all aliens who are sexual deviates. Return to text.

[222] See McCarran-Walter Act, Pub. L. No. 414, § 212(a)(4), 66 Stat. 163, 182 (1952) (amended 1990). Return to text.

[223] See In re La Rochelle, 11 I. & N. Dec. 436 (Board of Immigration Appeals, Dec. 1, 1965). Return to text.

[224] See generally United States v. Flores-Rodriguez, 237 F.2d 405 (2d Cir. 1956). Return to text.

[225] See D'EMILIO, supra note 20, at 44. Return to text.

[226] Exec. Order No. 10,450, 3 C.F.R. 936, 938 (1953). Return to text.

[227] See 3 C.F.R. § 8(a)(1)(iii) (1953) (authorizing investigations to dig up "[a]ny criminal, infamous, dishonest, immoral, or notoriously disgraceful conduct, habitual use of intoxicants to excess, drug addiction, or sexual perversion" . . . on the part of federal government employees). Return to text.

[228] Johnson, supra note 2, at 53. Return to text.

[229] See id. at 60. Return to text.

[230] See Scott v. Macy, 349 F.2d 182 (D.C. Cir. 1965). Scott's arrest was part of the U.S. Park Police's 1947-48 "Pervert Elimination Campaign," during which 543 men were questioned and fingerprinted, and 76 arrested. See Johnson, supra note 2, at 52. Return to text.

[231] 25 Fed. Reg. 1583 (1960). Return to text.

[232] See Greene v. McElroy, 360 U.S. 474, 508 (1959) (invalidating executive security clearance procedures as an unconstitutional usurpation of legislative power). Return to text.

[233] See Johnson, supra note 2, at 48. Private sector employees working on sensitive contracts were required to have security clearances, which were routinely denied to, or revoked from, homosexuals. See U.S. DEP'T OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DIRECTIVE NO. 5220.6 § VI.P (1966) (prohibiting "[a]ny criminal, infamous, dishonest, immoral, or notoriously disgraceful conduct, habitual use of intoxicants to excess, drug addiction, [or] sexual perversion" by employees having clearances). Return to text.

[234] See Johnson, supra note 2, at 52-53. Return to text.

[235] See id. Return to text.

[236] See OSHINSKY, supra note 21, at 310 (1983) (quoting Drew Pearson's file: "Joe McCarthy is a bachelor of 43 years. . . . He seldom dates girls and if he does he laughingly describes it as window dressing. It is common talk among homosexuals in Milwaukee who rendezvous at the White Horse Inn that Senator Joe McCarthy has often engaged in homosexual activities."). In 1953, McCarthy married his assistant, Jean Kerr. See id. at 328-29. Return to text.

[237] See id. at 451-52. Return to text.

[238] MILLER, supra note 195, at 270. Return to text.

[239] See id. Return to text.

[240] See id. at 271. Return to text.

[241] See id. Return to text.

[242] See LILLIAN FADERMAN, ODD GIRLS AND TWILIGHT LOVERS: A HISTORY OF LESBIAN LIFE IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY AMERICA 150-55 (1991); COLIN J. WILLIAMS & MARTIN S. WEINBERG, HOMOSEXUALS AND THE MILITARY: A STUDY OF LESS THAN HONORABLE DISCHARGE 46-53 (1971); Allan Bérubé & John D'Emilio, The Military and Lesbians During the McCarthy Years, in THE LESBIAN ISSUE: ESSAYS FROM SIGNS 279, 290-95 (Estelle Freedman et al. eds., 1985). Return to text.

[243] See Proposed Modifications to Recruit Training Curriculum 2, in CRITTENDEN REPORT, supra note 187, app. 21. Return to text.

[244] Chaplain's Presentation (WAVE Recruits) 2, in CRITTENDEN REPORT, supra note 187, app. 23. Return to text.

[245] Id. at 3. Return to text.

[246] See Chaplain's Presentation (Male Recruits) 1-2, in CRITTENDEN REPORT, supra note 187, app. 23; id. at 863. Return to text.

[247] See Indoctrination of Male Recruits on Subject of Homosexuality 5, in CRITTENDEN REPORT, supra note 187, app. 23. Return to text.

[248] DOD Memorandum, supra note 187, at 1. Return to text.

[249] U.S. ARMY, ARMY REG. 600-443 ¶ 5 (1950). Return to text.

[250] See D'EMILIO, supra note 20, at 45 (drawing from a letter from one of the women interrogated); Allan Bérubé & John D'Emilio, The Military and Lesbians during the McCarthy Years, 9 SIGNS 759, 770-74 (1984) (reprinting letters from women expelled as a result of the witch hunts at Kessler and Lackland). Return to text.

[251] See D'EMILIO, supra note 20, at 46. Return to text.

[252] FADERMAN, supra note 242, at 153 (citing Jackie Cursi, Leaping Lesbians, LESBIAN ETHICS, Fall 1986, at 81-83). Return to text.

[253] See id. Return to text.

[254] See id. Return to text.

[255] See id. at 154. Return to text.

[256] See WILLIAMS & WEINBERG, supra note 242, at 52. Return to text.

[257] See id. at 46-53. Return to text.

[258] See CRITTENDEN REPORT, supra note 187, at 51-52 ("There are probably many homosexuals in the service that are never discovered.") Return to text.

[259] See id. at 40, 51. Return to text.

[260] See ESTELLE FREEDMAN, MATERNAL JUSTICE: MIRIAM VAN WATERS AND THE FEMALE REFORM TRADITION 291 (1996). Return to text.

[261] See id. at 267-73. Return to text.

[262] See id. at 278. Return to text.

[263] Id. Return to text.

[264] See id. Return to text.

[265] See Deposition, supra note 144. Return to text.

[266] See id. at 5-6. The Sheriff's Office claimed to have evidence of the Medical Director's homosexual acts with 16 different boys and men in Tampa. See id. The Medical Director ultimately resigned and moved out of state. See id. at 6. Return to text.

[267] See id. at 4. Return to text.

[268] See id. Return to text.

[269] See id. at 10. Return to text.

[270] See id. at 11. Return to text.

[271] See id. at 12. Return to text.

[272] FLA. LEGIS. INVESTIGATION COMM., REPORT OF THE FLORIDA LEGISLATIVE INVESTIGATION COMMITTEE TO THE 1959 SESSION OF THE LEGISLATURE 4-5 (1959) (available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 1, Tallahassee, Fla.). Return to text.

[273] FLA. LEGIS. INVESTIGATION COMM., supra note 15, at 10. Return to text.

[274] See generally id. Return to text.

[275] See generally id. Return to text.

[276] Act effective July 1, 1959, ch. 59-404, § 1, 1959 Fla. Laws 1377, 1377 (current version at FLA. STAT. § 231.28 (1995)). Return to text.

[277] See Act effective June 22, 1961, ch. 61-396, § 2, 1961 Fla. Laws 754, 754 (current version at FLA. STAT. § 231.28 (1995)) (not requiring an investigation prior to revocation). Return to text.

[278] See FLA. LEGIS. INVESTIGATION COMM., supra note 15, at 13. According to an internal file memo, prepared later, 71 public school teachers lost their certificates (63 cases pending), and 14 university professors were fired (19 cases pending). Return to text.

[279] See FLA. LEGIS. INVESTIGATION COMM., REVOCATION MEMORANDUM (1964) (available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 1, Tallahassee, Fla.). Return to text.

[280] See Memorandum from William A. Tanner, Security Officer, University of Florida, to Dr. Gordon W. Blackwell, President, University of Florida 19-20 (Jan. 31, 1961) (available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 1, Tallahassee, Fla.). Return to text.

[281] FLA. LEGIS. INVESTIGATION COMM., supra note 15, at 8. The author signed the letter, "Just a Girl of 24." Id. Return to text.

[282] E.g., CAL. EDUC. CODE § 24306(a) (West 1954) (addressing state college employees); CAL. GOV'T CODE § 19572(l) (West 1954) (addressing all state civil service workers). Return to text.

[283] See CAL. EDUC. CODE §§ 13202, 13209 (West 1960). Return to text.

[284] See Act effective July 2, 1952, ch. 25, § 5, 1952 Cal. Stat. 389, 390 (current version at CAL. EDUC. CODE § 44436 (West 1996)) (depriving teachers of their certificates if convicted of sex crimes); id. § 2, 1952 Cal. Stat. at 390 (current version at CAL. EDUC. CODE § 44010 (West 1996)) (specifying the sex crimes triggering the penalty in section 44346). Return to text.

[285] 57 Cal. Rptr. 69 (Dist. Ct. App. 1957). Return to text.

[286] See id. at 71. Return to text.

[287] Id. at 72-73. Adding insult to injury, the court stated: "Homosexual behavior has long been contrary and abhorrent to the social mores and moral standards of the people of California as it has been since antiquity to those of many other peoples." Id. at 72. Return to text.

[288] See Act effective Sept. 22, 1951, ch. 1482, § 1, 1951 Cal. Stat. 3459, 3459 (current version at CAL. EDUC. CODE § 44341(a) (West 1996)). Return to text.

[289] Id. (current version at CAL. EDUC. CODE § 44341(c) (West 1996)) Return to text.

[290] CAL. BUS. & PROF. CODE § 1680(e) (West 1975) (dentists); id. § 2361(d) (doctors); id. § 3105 (optometrists); id. § 4356 (pharmacists); id. § 7698 (funeral directors and embalmers); CAL. PROB. CODE § 1580(4) (West 1954) (guardians). Return to text.

[291] E.g., CAL. BUS. & PROF. CODE § 1000-10(b) (West 1954) (chiropractors); id. § 1679 (dentists); id. § 2383 (doctors); id. § 2660(b) (physical therapists); id. § 3107 (optometrists); id. § 4354 (pharmacists); id. § 6775 (engineers). Return to text.

[292] See, e.g., United States v. Flores-Rodriguez, 237 F.2d 405, 409 (2d Cir. 1956) (loitering about a public toilet soliciting men for sex is a "crime [of] moral turpitude" for immigration law purposes). Return to text.

[293] See In re Boyd, 307 P.2d 625, 625 (Cal. 1957). Return to text.

[294] See id. Return to text.

[295] See Wood, supra note 77, at 21-22. Return to text.

[296] See Florida Bar v. Kay, 232 So. 2d 378, 379 (Fla. 1970). Return to text.

[297] See id. Return to text.

[298] Id. Return to text.

[299] This paradox is inspired by 1 MICHEL FOUCAULT, THE HISTORY OF SEXUALITY (Robert Hurley trans., 1978). See the discussion of Foucault in chapter three of WILLIAM N. ESKRIDGE, JR. & NAN D. HUNTER, SEXUALITY, GENDER, AND THE LAW (1997). Return to text.

[300] See JONATHAN NED KATZ, GAY/LESBIAN ALMANAC: A NEW DOCUMENTARY 530-31 (1983). The FBI partially declassified and released these files, albeit with names deleted, under the Freedom of Information Act. See id. at 530. Return to text.

[301] See id. Return to text.

[302] See id. Return to text.

[303] Id. at 530-31. Return to text.

[304] Id. at 531. Return to text.

[305] See J. Edgar Hoover, Role of the FBI in the Federal Employee Security Program, 49 NW. U. L. REV. 333, 336 (1954). Return to text.

[306] See EMPLOYMENT OF HOMOSEXUALS IN GOVERNMENT, supra note 197, at 12-13. Return to text.

[307] See Hoover, supra note 305, at 335. Return to text.

[308] See id. at 336. Return to text.

[309] See D'EMILIO, supra note 20, at 47. Return to text.

[310] See id. Return to text.

[311] See id. Return to text.

[312] See id. Return to text.

[313] See id. at 61-62. Return to text.

[314] See id. at 63-73; STUART TIMMONS, THE TROUBLE WITH HARRY HAY, FOUNDER OF THE MODERN GAY MOVEMENT, 129-53 (1990). Return to text.

[315] See D'EMILIO, supra note 20, at 72-73. Return to text.

[316] See id. at 89. Return to text.

[317] See id. at 102. Return to text.

[318] THE LADDER, Oct. 1956, at 2. Return to text.

[319] The discussion that follows is drawn from the FBI Freedom of Information Act files on the Mattachine Society (Files 100-403320 (Headquarters), 100-4588 (Los Angeles), 100-132065 (New York), 100-37394 (San Francisco), 100-33796 (Washington, D.C.)) and the Daughters of Bilitis (File 94-843). Return to text.

[320] Memorandum from FBI Los Angeles Office to FBI Headquarters 6 (Dec. 31, 1953) (reporting that the goals of the Society were "to accomplish these aims in a law-abiding manner. Homosexuals are not seeking to overthrow or destroy any of society's existing institutions, laws or mores, but to be assimilated as constructive, valuable and responsible citizens."). The agent in charge closed the FBI "internal security" file on Mattachine because there was clearly no subversive activity going on. Return to text.

[321] David L. Freeman, How Much Do You Know About the Homosexual Male, ONE, Nov. 1955, at 15. Return to text.

[322] Memorandum from Special Agent M.A. Jones to Mr. Nichols, FBI Headquarters 1 (Feb. 10, 1956) [hereinafter Jones Memorandum]. Return to text.

[323] See id. Return to text.

[324] See Air-Telegram from J. Edgar Hoover, Director, FBI, to FBI Los Angeles Office 1 (Jan. 27, 1956). There were rumors throughout Hoover's career of a liaison between him and Tolson. Return to text.

[325] See Jones Memorandum, supra note 322, at 1. Return to text.

[326] See id. Return to text.

[327] Air-Telegram from Special Agent Malone, FBI Headquarters, to FBI Los Angeles Office 3 (Feb. 2, 1956). Return to text.

[328] Jones Memorandum, supra note 322, at 1a-b. Return to text.

[329] See RODGER STREITMATTER, UNSPEAKABLE: THE RISE OF THE GAY AND LESBIAN PRESS IN AMERICA 32 (1995). The homophiles apparently kept their jobs, notwithstanding the FBI's efforts. Return to text.

[330] See, e.g., CAL. PENAL CODE § 311 (West 1955); N.Y. PENAL LAW § 1141 (McKinney 1944). These were the most widely invoked criminal obscenity statutes. Return to text.

[331] See Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930, ch. 497, § 305(a), 46 Stat. 590, 688 (codified as amended at 19 U.S.C. § 1305(a) (1994)); see also JAMES C.N. PAUL & MURRAY SCHWARTZ, FEDERAL CENSORSHIP: OBSCENITY IN THE MAIL 55-63 (1961). Return to text.

[332] Comstock Act of 1873, ch. 258, § 2, 17 Stat. 598 (current version at 18 U.S.C. § 1461 (1994)); see also HEYWOOD BROUN & MARGARET LEECH, ANTHONY COMSTOCK: ROUNDSMAN OF THE LORD 128-144 (describing Comstock's service in Congress) (1927); ROBERT W. HANEY, COMSTOCKERY IN AMERICA: PATTERNS OF CENSORSHIP AND CONTROL 34-35 (1974); PAUL & SCHWARTZ, supra note 331, at 22-24. Return to text.

[333] See STREITMATTER, supra note 329, at 1-16 (describing the history of Vice Versa). Return to text.

[334] Id. at 5 (quoting interview with Lisa Ben). Return to text.

[335] ALLEN GINSBERG, HOWL: ORIGINAL DRAFT FACSIMILE ETC. (Barry Miles ed., 1986). Return to text.

[336] See Dal McIntire, Tangents, ONE, May 1957, at 11-12; HANEY, supra note 332, at 34-45. Return to text.

[337] Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Horn on Howl, EVERGREEN REVIEW, Dec. 1957, at 145, reprinted in GINSBERG, supra note 335, at 169-70. Return to text.

[338] See id. Return to text.

[339] For more detailed accounts of lesbian and gay novels and their occasional censorship, see JEANNETTE H. FOSTER, SEX VARIANT WOMEN IN LITERATURE (1956); AUSTEN, supra note 12, at 153. Return to text.

[340] Strange Sisters opens with the knifing of a man by a girl having variant tendencies because she was seduced by an older woman. Return to text.

[341] See Manual Enter., Inc. v. Day, 370 U.S. 478, 489 n.13 (1962). The account that follows is taken from the briefs and the Court's opinion. Return to text.

[342] See id. at 489 n.13. Return to text.

[343] See id. Return to text.

[344] See id. at 481. Return to text.

[345] Id. However, the United States Supreme Court found that these magazines should not have been suppressed by the Post Office. See id. at 495. Return to text.

[346] Letter from Senator Alexander Wiley to Arthur Summerfield, Postmaster General (Apr. 28, 1954). Return to text.

[347] See id. Return to text.

[348] See One, Inc. v. Olesen, 241 F.2d 772, 773 (1957) (holding that the Post Office's determination that One was not mailable was not arbitrary and capricious), rev'd per curiam, 355 U.S. 371 (1958). Return to text.

[349] Id. at 774. Return to text.

[350] Id. at 773. Return to text.

[351] Act of Aug. 16, 1950, ch. 721, 64 Stat. 451 (current version at 39 U.S.C. § 3006 (1994)). In 1956, Congress confirmed that the Post Office had the authority to invoke this impoundment power, albeit for just 20 days, without a hearing or an order from the courts. See Act of July 27, 1956, Pub. L. No. 821, ch. 755, 70 Stat. 699. Return to text.

[352] See Comstock Act of 1873 § 2, 18 U.S.C. § 1461 (1994). Return to text.

[353] Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, Inc., A Code to Govern the Making of Motion and Talking Pictures, (June 13, 1934) [hereinafter MPPDA Code], reprinted in MORRIS L. ERNST & ALEXANDER LINDEY, THE CENSOR MARCHES ON 317 (1940). Application II.3 specified that "Seduction or Rape" . . . "should never be more than suggested, and only when essential for the plot." MPPDA Code, supra. Return to text.

[354] See ERNST & LINDEY, supra note 353, at 86. Return to text.

[355] See id. at 89. Return to text.

[356] See VITO RUSSO, THE CELLULOID CLOSET: HOMOSEXUALITY IN THE MOVIES 115-18 (rev. ed. 1985). Return to text.

[357] See LOS ANGELES, CAL., CODE § 23.15 (1946). Return to text.

[358] Id. § 41.13(a). The ordinance authorized the police to seize any motion picture violating subsection (a). See id. § 41.13(b). Return to text.

[359] N.Y. EDUC. LAW § 122 (1921) (repealed 1983). Return to text.

[360] Act effective April 12, 1954, ch. 620, § 1, 1954 N.Y. Laws 1494, 1494 (repealed 1983). Return to text.

[361] See ELIZABETH LAPOVSKY KENNEDY & MADELINE D. DAVIS, BOOTS OF LEATHER, SLIPPERS OF GOLD: THE HISTORY OF A LESBIAN COMMUNITY 70-76 (1993). Return to text.

[362] See id. Return to text.

[363] E.g., Act effective May 27, 1935, ch. 16774, § 1, 1935 Fla. Laws 21, 22 (current version at FLA. STAT. § 561.29 (1995 & Supp. 1996)) (license can be revoked for "permitting disorderly conduct"); Texas Liquor Control Act, ch. 467, § 12(e), 1935 Tex. Gen. Laws 1795, 1801 (current version at TEX. ALCO. BEV. CODE ANN. § 61.71(a)(11) (West 1995)) (revocation if licensee allows conduct that is "lewd, immoral or offensive to public decency" or if licensee is convicted of a felony); Alcoholic Beverage Control Act, ch. 94, § 25(a), 1934 Va. Acts 100, 114 (current version at VA. CODE ANN. § 4.1-225(1) (Michie 1996)) (license can be revoked for inappropriate behavior by owner or on premises). Return to text.

[364] N.Y. ALCO. BEV. CONT. LAW § 106(6) (McKinney 1934). Return to text.

[365] N.Y. PENAL LAW § 722(8) (McKinney 1952). Return to text.

[366] See GEORGE CHAUNCEY, GAY NEW YORK: GENDER, URBAN CULTURE, AND THE MAKEUP OF THE GAY MALE WORLD, 1890-1940, at 331-51 (1994). Return to text.

[367] One Eleven Wines & Liquors, Inc. v. Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control, 235 A.2d 12, 14 (N.J. 1967) (quoting N.J. Alco. Bev. Cont. Div. R. 4); see also id. (discussing In re M. Potter, Inc., N.J. A.B.C. Bulletin 474, Item 1 (Alco. Bev. Cont. Comm'r Aug. 7, 1941) (suspending liquor license because "effeminate" men danced and kissed one another on the premises)). Return to text.

[368] See BÉRUBÉ, supra note 20, at 356 n.31. Return to text.

[369] Act of March 30, 1956, ch. 521, § 1, 1956 Va. Acts 749, 749 (current version at VA. CODE ANN. § 4.1-225(1)(h) (Michie 1996)). Return to text.

[370] Act effective Oct. 4, 1949, ch. 543, § 1, 1949 Tex. Gen. Laws 1011, 1011 (current version at TEX. ALCO. BEV. CODE ANN. § 104.01(7) (West 1995)). The Texas law also prohibited the premises from "[p]ermitting entertainment, performances, shows, or acts that are lewd or vulgar." Id. (current version at TEX. ALCO. BEV. CODE ANN. § 104.01(6) (West 1995)). Return to text.

[371] MIAMI, FLA., CODE § 51-35 (1954), reprinted infra Appendix 5. Return to text.

[372] Alcoholic Beverage Control Act, ch. 330, § 58, 1935 Cal. Stat. 1123 (current version at CAL. BUS. & PROF. CODE § 25601 (West 1996)). Return to text.

[373] See id. § 40 (current version at CAL. BUS. & PROF. CODE § 24200(d) (West 1996)). Return to text.

[374] Id. (current version at CAL. BUS. & PROF. CODE § 24200(a) (West 1996)). Return to text.

[375] See Kershaw v. Department of Alcohol Beverage Control, 318 P.2d 494, 496 (Cal. Dist. Ct. App. 1957). Return to text.

[376] See id. Return to text.

[377] See id. Return to text.

[378] See id. Return to text.

[379] See id. at 498. Return to text.

[380] See Stoumen v. Reilly, 234 P.2d 969 (Cal. 1951) (en banc) (holding that evidence was insufficient to support revocation of the license); D'EMILIO, supra note 20, at 186-88. Return to text.

[381] ALLEN GINSBERG, GAY SUNSHINE INTERVIEW WITH ALLEN YOUNG 33 (Allen Young & Karla Jay eds., 1974); see also D'EMILIO, supra note 20, at 186-188; HENRY EVANS, BOHEMIAN SAN FRANCISCO 16 (1955) (generally describing the Black Cat as a formerly good drinking establishment gone "to hell" because "the new owner encouraged the fruit[s]" to patronize it). Return to text.

[382] See D'EMILIO, supra note 20, at 187-88. Return to text.

[383] Act effective Sept. 7, 1955, ch. 1217, § 1, 1955 Cal. Stat. 2230, 2230 (repealed 1963). Return to text.

[384] MIAMI, FLA., CODE § 51-35 (1954), reprinted infra Appendix 5. Return to text.

[385] Inman v. City of Miami, 197 So. 2d 50, 52 (Fla. 3rd DCA 1967). Return to text.

[386] One Eleven Wines & Liquors, Inc. v. Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control, 235 A.2d 12, 14 (N.J. 1967) (quoting N.J. Alco. Bev. Cont. Div. R. 5). Return to text.

[387] Id. (quoting In re Louise G. Mack, N.J. A.B.C. Bulletin 1088, Item 2 (Alco. Bev. Cont. Comm'r Nov. 2, 1955)). Return to text.

[388] Id. (quoting In re Polka Club, Inc., N.J. A.B.C. Bulletin 1045, Item 6 (Alco. Bev. Cont. Comm'r Dec. 27, 1954)). Return to text.

[389] See, e.g., KENNEDY & DAVIS, supra note 361, at 74-75 (noting there were virtually no raids of the Buffalo lesbian bars of the 1950s because "[p]olice payoffs seemed to have been an institutionalized aspect of Buffalo vice"). Return to text.

[390] See Hall Call, Why Perpetuate This Barbarism?, THE MATTACHINE REVIEW, June 1960, at 14. Return to text.

[391] See SUSAN STRYKER & JIM VAN BUSKIRK, GAY BY THE BAY: A HISTORY OF QUEER CULTURE IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA 31 (1996). Return to text.

[392] See generally HIDDEN HOLOCAUST? GAY AND LESBIAN PERSECUTION IN GERMANY 1933-45 (Gunter Grau ed. & Patrick Camiller trans., Fitzray Dearborn 1995); RICHARD PLANT, THE PINK TRIANGLE: THE NAZI WAR AGAINST HOMOSEXUALS (1986). Return to text.

[393] See generally PLANT supra note 392, at 1. Return to text.

[394] See supra note 226 and accompanying text. Return to text.

[395] See HIDDEN HOLOCAUST, supra note 392, at 27-31. Return to text.

[396] See supra Part I.C.2-3. Return to text.

[397] See HIDDEN HOLOCAUST, supra note 392, at 36-37. Return to text.

[398] See supra Part I.A.1. Return to text.

[399] HIDDEN HOLOCAUST, supra note 392, at 64- Return to text.

[400] See id. Return to text.

[401] See id. at 64-67, 71-80. Return to text.

[402] See supra notes 60-61 and accompanying text. Return to text.

[403] HIDDEN HOLOCAUST, supra note 392, at 88-91. Return to text.

[404] See supra note 59 and accompanying text. Return to text.

[405] See HIDDEN HOLOCAUST, supra note 392, at 88, 132-33. Return to text.

[406] See id. at 131-32, 151-60. Return to text.

[407] See supra Part I.A.2. Return to text.

[408] See HIDDEN HOLOCAUST, supra note 392, at 88-91, 109-10. Return to text.

[409] See supra notes 208-10, 231-35 and accompanying text. Return to text.

[410] See HIDDEN HOLOCAUST, supra note 392, at 138-150. However, Heinrich Himmler did not approve of police officer entrapment of homosexuals. See id. at 150. Return to text.

[411] See supra Part I.A.2. Return to text.

[412] HIDDEN HOLOCAUST, supra note 392, at 166-67. Return to text.

[413] See supra Part I.B.1. Return to text.

[414] See HIDDEN HOLOCAUST, supra note 392, at 264-65, 272-92. Return to text.

[415] See generally KATZ, supra note 50. Return to text.

[416] See HIDDEN HOLOCAUST, supra note 392, at 192-99, 264-92. Return to text.

[417] See ALFRED C. KINSEY ET AL., SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE HUMAN MALE 659-66 (1948); ALFRED C. KINSEY ET AL., SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE HUMAN FEMALE 484-87 (1953). Return to text.

[418] See TAPPAN, supra note 41, at 34-35 (discussing failure of states to enforce laws or to enforce laws infrequently). Tappan found the laws of Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, Washington, and Wisconsin substantially "innovative." Even in California, the District, and New Jersey, where the laws yielded double-digit cases each year, observers reported the laws "ineffectual" and "inadequate." Id. Return to text.

[419] See CRITTENDEN REPORT, supra note 187, at 4. The Crittenden Report found that there was "some indication that the homosexuals disclosed [in military investigations] represents only a very small proportion of homosexuals in the Navy." Id. The report summarized two studies of homosexual men who served in the armed forces: in one study, 45 of 52 men served without incident and only two were discharged for homosexuality; five were discharged for other reasons. In the other study, 118 of 132 men served without incident and only four were discharged because of homosexuality; 10 were discharged for other reasons. See id.; see also WILLIAMS & WEINBERG, supra note 242, at 46-53. Return to text.

[420] See FOSTER, supra note 339, at 25; Gene Damon, The Lesbian Paperback, TANGENTS, June, 1966, at 4-7. Return to text.

[421] See supra note 41 (noting California (Dr. Karl Bowman), Illinois (Dr. Charles Bowman), New Jersey (Professor Paul Tappan), and New York (Dr. Bernard Glueck) study commission experts supporting Kinsey and Hooker theories). Return to text.

[422] See CORY, supra note 208, at 300. Return to text.

[423] See Gallo et al., supra note 65, at 783 (noting that less than one percent of those charged with sodomy and sex perversion felonies ultimately received felony dispositions or sentences). Return to text.

[424] ILL. COMM'N ON SEX OFFENDERS, supra note 41, at 10-11. Return to text.

[425] Id. at 8-9. Return to text.

[426] See generally NEW JERSEY COMM'N ON THE HABITUAL SEX OFFENDER, supra note 41; ILL. COMM'N ON SEX OFFENDERS, supra note 41; CAL. DEP'T OF MENTAL HYGIENE, supra note 41; N.Y. RESEARCH PROJECT, supra note 41. Return to text.

[427] See MODEL PENAL CODE § 207.5 (Tentative Draft No. 4, 1955) (decriminalizing fornication, adultery, and other sexual crimes not involving violence or children); see also Louis Henkin, Morals and the Constitution: The Sin of Obscenity, 63 COLUM. L. REV. 391 (1963). Judge John Parker of the Fourth Circuit, the jurist whose nomination to the Supreme Court in 1930 was defeated because of his anti-civil rights and anti-union views, vigorously opposed the move. The critical voice in favor of the proposal was Judge Learned Hand of the Second Circuit, the most distinguished jurist in the nation. See generally GERALD GUNTHER, LEARNED HAND: THE MAN AND THE JUDGE (1994). Return to text.

[428] MODEL PENAL CODE § 207.5 commentary at 277-78 (Tentative Draft No. 4, 1955). Return to text.

[429] Id. at 278.; see also id. § 207.1 commentary at 207:

The Code does not attempt to use the power of the state to enforce purely moral or religious standards. . . . Such matters are best left to religious, educational and other social influences. . . . [I]t must be recognized, as a practical matter, that in a heterogeneous community such as ours, different individuals and groups have widely divergent views of the seriousness of various moral derelictions. Return to text.

[430] COMMITTEE ON HOMOSEXUAL OFFENSES AND PROSTITUTION, UNITED KINGDOM, THE WOLFENDEN REPORT 48 (Am. ed. 1963). Return to text.

[431] Id. at 23-24. Return to text.

[432] See id. at 48-55; MODEL PENAL CODE § 207.4 commentary at 277-81 (Tentative Draft No. 4, 1955). Return to text.

[433] See H.L.A. HART, LAW, LIBERTY, AND MORALITY (1963) (responding to Patrick Devlin's The Enforcement of Morals (1959), which responded to the Wolfenden Report). Return to text.

[434] See Act of Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 525, § 15, 1950 N.Y. Laws 1271, 1278-79 (current version at N.Y. PENAL LAW § 130.38 (McKinney 1996)). Return to text.

[435] See Act of July 28, 1961, § 35-1, 1961 Ill. Laws 1983, 2044 (repealed 1984). Return to text.

[436] See Letter from Dr. Charles Bowman, Professor of Law, University of Illinois, to [name blackened out] (June 15, 1964) (available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 2, Tallahassee, Fla.). Return to text.

[437] The account that follows is taken from Minutes of the Advisory Committee to the Florida Legislative Investigation Committee, June 29-30, 1964 (available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 1, folder 15, Tallahassee, Fla.), as well as follow-up correspondence. Appendix 6 to this Article reproduces these minutes. Return to text.

[438] Id. at 8; see also id. at 9 (Dr. Kapchan: "ours is supposed to be a free society, and he felt it to be immoral to invade the privacy of human beings if they are in no way encroaching on the rights of another human being"); id. (Dr. Davis arguing there is no public purpose to outlawing "private" conduct, as opposed to "public indecency"); Letter from Dr. Jack Kapchan, Assoc. Professor, University of Miami, to John Evans, Staff Director, Fla. Legis. Investigation Comm., July 7, 1964 (available at the Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 2, folder 3, Tallahassee, Fla.) (systematic statement of the medical-social science perspective favoring deregulation of consensual private intimacy but agreeing to regulate "homosexual behavior as deviant" so long as heterosexual fornication is deregulated). Return to text.

[439] Advisory Committee Minutes, supra note 437, at 7, 8 (paraphrase of Judge Rudd's remarks). Return to text.

[440] Letter from J. Duane Barker to John Evans, Staff Director, Fla. Legis. Investigation Comm., July 13, 1964; see also Advisory Committee Minutes, supra note 437, at 8 (same position in meeting, that homosexuals will "go out looking for children," to recruit them). Return to text.

[441] MODEL PENAL CODE § 207.5(4) (Tentative Draft No. 4, 1955). Return to text.

[442] See id. Because of the possibility that sexual intercourse can transmit venereal disease, there would seem to be at least as much public risk from the "private" conduct as from the "public" conduct. Return to text.

[443] Advisory Committee Minutes, supra note 437, at 5 (paraphrase of Judge Winegart's comment). Return to text.

[444] See supra note 67 (New York); Gallo et al., supra note 65, at 718 (Los Angeles). Return to text.

[445] See, e.g., People v. Schmitt, 267 N.W. 741, 741 (Mich. 1936) (holding that the state's sodomy law does not include cunnilingus); Bennett v. Abram, 253 P.2d 316, 316 (N.M. 1953) (holding that the sodomy law does not include oral sex); State v. Morrison, 96 A.2d 723, 724 (N.J. 1953) (stating the sodomy law does not include oral sex); see also State v. Evans, 245 P.2d 788, 789 (Idaho 1953) (interpreting child molestation statute to permit judge to set maximum sentence at less than the statutory life sentence); State v. Vallery, 34 So. 2d 329, 331 (La. 1948) (refusing to enforce law prohibiting "any immoral act" on a juvenile). Return to text.

[446] See Thompson v. Aldredge, 200 S.E. 799, 800 (Ga. 1939). Return to text.

[447] See Riley v. Garrett, 133 S.E.2d 367, 368 (Ga. 1963) (discussing male-female cunnilingus while reaffirming and applying Thompson). But see Fine v. State, 14 So. 2d 408, 410 (Fla. 1943) (applying crime against nature statute to male-female cunnilingus involving an adult and child); State v. Townsend, 71 A.2d 517, 518 (Me. 1950) (broadening crime against nature statute beyond "sodomy or any other bestial and unnatural copulation"). Return to text.

[448] See People v. Randall, 214 N.Y.S.2d 417, 422-23 (N.Y. 1961). Return to text.

[449] See id. at 423-24. Return to text.

[450] See infra Appendix 1B. Return to text.

[451] See Gallo et al., supra note 65, at 770-75. Return to text.

[452] N.Y. PENAL LAW § 722(8) (McKinney 1923). Return to text.

[453] People v. Swald, 73 N.Y.S.2d 399, 400 (Magis. Ct. 1947). Return to text.

[454] See People v. Feliciano, 173 N.Y.S.2d 123, 124 (Magis. Ct. 1958). Return to text.

[455] See id. at 125. Return to text.

[456] Id. at 126. Return to text.

[457] See People v. McCormack, 169 N.Y.S.2d 139, 141-42 (Ct. Spec. Sess. 1957); People v. Burnes, 178 N.Y.S.2d 746, 749-50 (Ct. Spec. Sess. 1958). Return to text.

[458] Feliciano, 173 N.Y.S.2d at 126. Return to text.

[459] 164 N.E.2d 720 (N.Y. 1959). Return to text.

[460] See id. at 721; see also People v. Liebenthal, 155 N.E. 2d 871, 871-72 (N.Y. 1959). Return to text.

[461] 168 N.E.2d 518 (N.Y. 1960). Return to text.

[462] Id. at 519 (quoting N.Y. CRIM. PROC. LAW § 887(4)(c) (McKinney 1960)). Return to text.

[463] Id. Return to text.

[464] See People v. Gillespi, 202 N.E.2d 565, 565 (N.Y. 1964). Return to text.

[465] 97 A.2d 135, 136 (D.C. 1953). Return to text.

[466] See id. at 136. Return to text.

[467] See id. at 138. Return to text.

[468] See id. at 138 (Hood, J., dissenting). Return to text.

[469] See id. Return to text.

[470] Id. at 139. This was in response to the prosecutor's argument: "There is good reason to prosecute these cases. All the security agencies of the United States immediately fire these people as weak security risks." Id. at 138-39. Return to text.

[471] 98 A.2d 287, 289 (D.C. 1953). Return to text.

[472] See id. at 289; see also Guarro v. United States, 237 F.2d 578, 581 (D.C. Cir. 1956). Return to text.

[473] D.C. CODE § 2701 (1953) (enticing); id. § 22-1112 (indecent proposal/lewd act). Return to text.

[474] See Rittenour v. District of Columbia, 163 A.2d 558, 559 (D.C. 1960). Return to text.

[475] See id. Return to text.

[476] Id. Return to text.

[477] See generally CRITTENDEN REPORT, supra note 187. Return to text.

[478] CRITTENDEN REPORT, supra note 187, at 5-6. Return to text.

[479] See id. at 5-6, 46. While the report rejected the idea that homosexuality was a mental disease, it did accept the idea that it was a symptom of "organic brain disease" or other mental problems. Id. at 7. While the report found that "a homosexual is not necessarily more of a security risk, per se, than other transgressors of moral and criminal codes," it recognized that "homosexual activity, as in the case of promiscuous heterosexual activity, [raises] serious security considerations." Id. at 46. Return to text.

[480] Id. at 55. Return to text.

[481] Id. at 20. Return to text.

[482] See id. at 24-26. The Board also recognized that the Navy ought to retain the power to discharge dishonorably, lest someone should attempt to invoke the homosexuality exclusion to escape mandatory military service. See id. Return to text.

[483] Id. app. 3 at 434. Return to text.

[484] See U.S. CONST. amend. IV. Return to text.

[485] See id. amend. V. Return to text.

[486] See id. amend. VIII. Return to text.

[487] See id. amend. VI. Return to text.

[488] See id. amend. VIII. Return to text.

[489] See, e.g., Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 655 (1961) (recognizing the extension of due process to all constitutionally unreasonable federal or state searches).

Return to text.

[490] Your Rights in Case of Arrest, ONE, Jan. 1954, at 14; see also Alison Hunter, ONE, Mar. 1961, at 4-5. In the 1960s, San Francisco's Society for Individual Rights and the Mattachine Society of Washington printed similar lists on pocket-sized cards. Return to text.

[491] Charles K. Robinson, The Raid, ONE, July 1960, at 26. Return to text.

[492] See Jennings, supra note 79, at 10-13; see also supra text accompanying notes 79-85. Return to text.

[493] The account that follows is taken from Jennings, supra note 79, at 13. Return to text.

[494] See Donnelly, supra note 73, at 1091. Return to text.

[495] E.g., People v. Barraza, 591 P.2d 947, 955 (Cal. 1979) (elaborating upon People v. Perez, 401 P.2d 934 (Cal. 1965)); see also MODEL PENAL CODE § 2.13(1) (1962). Return to text.

[496] See Gallo et al., supra note 65, at 701-07. Return to text.

[497] See, e.g., Sherman v. United States, 356 U.S. 369, 372 (1958); Sorrells v. United States, 287 U.S. 435, 442 (1932). Return to text.

[498] See Donnelly, supra note 73, at 1102. Some courts rejected the use of prior convictions. See, e.g., Sherman, 356 U.S. at 375. Other courts rejected testimony on general reputation. See, e.g., United States v. Collier, 313 F.2d 157, 159-60 (7th Cir. 1963). Return to text.

[499] 194 F.2d 150 (D.C. Cir. 1952). Return to text.

[500] See id. at 155. Return to text.

[501] See id. at 151. Return to text.

[502] See id. at 153-54. Return to text.

[503] Id. at 154-55. Kelly overruled decisions of the Municipal Court of Appeals that had allowed such convictions, such as Brenke v. United States, 78 A.2d 677 (D.C. 1951). Return to text.

[504] See Guarro v. United States, 237 F.2d 578, 580 (D.C. Cir. 1956). Return to text.

[505] See, e.g., King v. United States, 90 A.2d 229, 231-32 (D.C. 1952). Return to text.

[506] See Berneau v. United States, 188 A.2d 301, 302 (D.C. 1963) (holding Kelly inapplicable to transvestite prostitute's solicitation of decoy cop). The court required little more than corroboration that the decoy and defendant were both present at the alleged time and place. See id. at 302; see also Reed v. United States, 93 A.2d 568, 569-70 (D.C. 1953) (involving an officer's testimony that was uncorroborated except as to time and place); King, 90 A.2d at 231 (D.C. 1952); Bicksler v. United States, 90 A.2d 233, 234-35 (D.C. 1952). Return to text.

[507] See Kelly, 194 F.2d at 152. Return to text.

[508] See, e.g., King, 90 A.2d at 230 (upholding conviction despite character testimony). Return to text.

[509] 97 A.2d 135 (D.C. 1953). Return to text.

[510] Bielecki v. Superior Court, 371 P.2d 288, 299 (Cal. 1962). The decision was rejected in Smayda v. United States, 352 F.2d 251 (9th Cir. 1965). Return to text.

[511] See Robinson v. California, 370 U.S. 660, 666 (U.S. 1962) (reversing a conviction essentially for the status of being a drug addict). Return to text.

[512] See Cole v. State, 175 P.2d 376, 380 (Okla. Crim. App. 1946). Reverend Cole was convicted of sodomy in Cole v. State, 179 P.2d 176 (Okla. Crim. App. 1947). Return to text.

[513] See Cole, 175 P.2d at 379. Return to text.

[514] See id. at 378-79. The requirement that accomplice testimony be corroborated was the old common-law rule, which was often codified by statute, for rape as well as sodomy cases. The conviction was reversed for lack of corroboration. See id. at 380. Return to text.

[515] See Woody v. State, 238 P.2d 367, 373 (Okla. Crim. App. 1951). Return to text.

[516] See id. at 373. Return to text.

[517] Id. at 371. Return to text.

[518] See Berryman v. State, 283 P.2d 558, 566 (Okla. Crim. App. 1955) (upholding a five-year sentence for apparently consensual oral sex between an adult and a 15-year-old boy). The court observed:

In recent months there has been an increase in the number of cases called to our attention which involve homosexuals and other sex deviators. . . . "Exposure to the sex deviate may have a decisive and harmful effect upon a child's development of a normal sex life as an adult. Despite their differences of opinion, students of homosexuality seem to agree that exposure during adolescence may be the precipitating factor in the adult development of the homosexual or the Lesbian. The law must make it possible to take effective action against twisted adults who use children and minors as sexual objects."

See id. at 565 n.1 (quoting MORRIS PLOSCOWE, SEX AND THE LAW (1951)). The only leniency shown by the court was Judge Powell's vote to reduce the prison sentence from five to four years. His appeal for a shorter sentence was based upon "the duty of the State to attempt the rehabilitation of sex perverts in view of the demoralization and moral decay brought about by such persons" and the judge's fear that "perverts" such as Berryman would "prey" on young boys in prison. Id. at 566 (Powell, J., on rehearing). Return to text.

[519] 298 P.2d 798 (Ariz. 1956). Return to text.

[520] See id. at 799. Return to text.

[521] See id. at 800-01. Return to text.

[522] Id. Return to text.

[523] See id. at 801. Return to text.

[524] See, e.g., State v. Kehm, 103 A.2d 781, 782 (Del. Super. Ct. 1954) (admitting confession of defendants after high-speed chase). In Dyson, for example, the admissibility of the defendant's confession was considered too obvious to justify an extended discussion. See Dyson v. United States, 97 A.2d 135, 135 (D.C. 1953). Return to text.

[525] See 298 P.2d at 801-02. The traditional Anglo-American rule is that evidence of prior crimes is inadmissible on the ground that its relevance to the probability that defendant committed the charged crime is outweighed by its likely prejudice to the defendant as a "bad person." See CHARLES T. MCCORMICK, HANDBOOK ON THE LAW OF EVIDENCE 327 (1954); Herman L. Trautman, Logical or Legal Relevancy—A Conflict in Theory, 5 VAND. L. REV. 385, 408-09 (1952). Return to text.

[526] See McDaniel, 298 P.2d at 802. Return to text.

[527] Id. Return to text.

[528] See State v. Huntington, 80 N.W.2d 744, 748-49 (Iowa 1957) (holding proof of prior acts are admissible); Willett v. State, 584 P.2d 684, 685 (Nev. 1978) (specifically adopting the McDaniel Rule); State v. Desilets, 73 A.2d 800, 802 (N.H. 1950) (finding a prior act was admissible to show a plan). Return to text.

[529] State v. Fletcher, 256 P.2d 847, 848-49 (Kan. 1953) (holding that the trial court did not err in permitting admission of advertising material and sexual photographs for the limited purpose of proving the defendant's disposition). Return to text.

[530] State v. Shively, 176 N.E.2d 436, 439 (Ohio Ct. App. 1960) (following State v. Jackson, 81 N.E.2d 546, 548 (Ohio Ct. App. 1948)). Return to text.

[531] 302 P.2d 813 (Cal. Dist. Ct. App. 1956). Return to text.

[532] See id. at 813. Return to text.

[533] Id. at 815. Return to text.

[534] 266 P.2d 38 (Cal. 1954). Return to text.

[535] Id. at 43. Return to text.

[536] See State v. Sinnott, 132 A.2d 302, 309-10 (N.J. 1957). Return to text.

[537] Commonwealth v. Tacconelli, 45 Pa. D. & C.2d 654, 659 (Crim. Ct. 1968). Return to text.

[538] See United States v. Phillips, 11 C.M.R 137, 142 (C.M.A. 1953). Return to text.

[539] Id. at 141. Return to text.

[540] See FREEDMAN, supra note 260, at 272-73. Return to text.

[541] See id. Return to text.

[542] See id. at 285. Return to text.

[543] See id. at 335-36. Return to text.

[544] Id. Return to text.

[545] See id. at 337. Return to text.

[546] See United Pub. Workers v. Mitchell, 330 U.S. 75, 102-03 (1947); see also Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Comm. v. McGrath, 341 U.S. 123, 185 (1951) (finding that a hearing is required before an organization can be designated as "subversive"). "The fact that one may not have a legal right to get or keep a government post does not mean that he can be adjudged ineligible illegally." Id. at 185 (Jackson, J., concurring). Return to text.

[547] See Shelton v. Tucker, 364 U.S. 479, 490 (1960) (invalidating state statute requiring teachers to disclose organizational affiliations); Schware v. Board of Bar Exam'rs of New Mexico, 353 U.S. 232, 247 (1957) (holding that the state denied a political dissenter due process by denying him the opportunity to qualify for the bar); Slochower v. Board of Higher Educ., 350 U.S. 551, 559 (1956) (holding the discharge of an employee for invoking her Fifth Amendment rights was a violation of due process). But see Lerner v. Casey, 357 U.S. 468, 478-79 (1958) (retreating from the position that an employee discharge for invoking a Fifth Amendment right was a violation of due process). See Wieman v. Updegraff, 344 U.S. 183, 189 (1952) (striking down loyalty oath for state employees as a violation of due process); Garner v. Board of Public Works, 341 U.S. 716, 720-24 (1951) (reviewing but upholding municipal policy against employing political revolutionaries). Return to text.

[548] Harmon v. Brucker, 355 U.S. 579, 581-82 (1958). Return to text.

[549] Konigsberg v. State Bar of Cal., 353 U.S. 252, 273 (1957). Return to text.

[550] See Exec. Order No. 10,450, 3 C.F.R. 936, 938 (1953). Return to text.

[551] Bérubé & D'Emilio, supra note 242, at 291. Return to text.

[552] The ACLU resolution is reprinted in ACLU Position on Homosexuality, MATTACHINE REV., Mar., 1957, at 7. Return to text.

[553] See Clackum v. United States, 296 F.2d 226, 226 (Ct. Cl. 1960). Return to text.

[554] See id. at 226. Return to text.

[555] See id. at 227. Return to text.

[556] See id. at 227. Return to text.

[557] See id. at 229. Return to text.

[558] Id. Return to text.

[559] See Dew v. Halaby, 317 F.2d 582, 582 (D.C. Cir. 1963), cert. dismissed, 379 U.S. 951 (1964). Return to text.

[560] Id. at 582. Return to text.

[561] See id. Return to text.

[562] See id. Return to text.

[563] Id. at 583. Return to text.

[564] See id. at 583 n.3. Return to text.

[565] See id. at 589. Return to text.

[566] Id. at 587 n.10. Return to text.

[567] Id. at 591 (Wright, J., dissenting). Return to text.

[568] See Dew v. Halaby, 379 U.S. 904 (1964), cert. dismissed per stip., 379 U.S. 951 (1964). Return to text.

[569] E.g., Bob Bishop, Discard the Mask, MATTACHINE REV., Apr., 1958, at 14-16, 21-24. Return to text.

[570] Seymour Krim, Revolt of the Homosexual, reprinted in MATTACHINE REV., May, 1959, at 4. Return to text.

[571] Id. at 5, 9. Return to text.

[572] Id. Return to text.

[573] James (Barr) Fugaté, Release from the Navy Under Honorable Conditions, MATTACHINE REV., May/June, 1955, at 6, 42. Return to text.

[574] The conceptual shift links up with the linguistic shift noted in the Introduction. The homosexual who "came out of the cloister" in the 1940s did so privately, first to him or herself and then to others in the subculture. The homosexual who "came out of the closet" in the 1960s did so publicly, to the conventional community. Return to text.

[575] See DeJonge v. Oregon, 299 U.S. 353, 364-65 (1937) (holding that a peaceful assembly for lawful discussion is protected by the First and Fourteenth amendments); Herndon v. Lowry, 301 U.S. 242, 258-59 (1937) (preventing the state from abridging the freedom of speech and assembly by striking down a statute that penalized assembly); Stromberg v. California, 283 U.S. 359, 369 (1931) (declaring a state statute unconstitutional because of vagueness that could result in punishment of innocent persons displaying a red flag); Fiske v. Kansas, 274 U.S. 380, 386 (1927) (holding that a state statute was an unlawful exercise of police power because it punished persons for lawful acts). Return to text.

[576] United States v. Carolene Prods. Co., 304 U.S. 144, 153 n.4 (1938). Return to text.

[577] See Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214, 223 (1944); Hirabayashi v. United States, 320 U.S. 81, 112 (1943). Return to text.

[578] See Dennis v. United States, 341 U.S. 494, 516 (1951). Return to text.

[579] See Yates v. United States, 354 U.S. 298, 303, 313-14 (1957), overruled on other grounds by Burks v. United States, 437 U.S. 1, 10 (1978); Scales v. United States, 367 U.S. 203 (1961); Noto v. United States, 367 U.S. 290, 297 (1961); Norman Dorsen, The Second Mr. Justice Harlan: A Constitutional Conservative, 44 N.Y.U. L. REV. 249, 263-65 (1969). Return to text.

[580] 347 U.S. 483 (1954). Return to text.

[581] 357 U.S. 449 (1958). Return to text.

[582] Id. at 466. Return to text.

[583] 372 U.S. 539, 543 (U.S. 1963). Return to text.

[584] United States v. Zuideveld, 316 F.2d 873, 883 (7th Cir. 1963) (Swygert, J., dissenting). Return to text.

[585] THE MATTACHINE SOCIETY, THE MATTACHINE SOCIETY TODAY 1 (1954). Return to text.

[586] Id. at 8. The Society was also "unalterably opposed to Communists and Communist activity." Id. The Communist Party returned the favor and expelled homosexuals from its ranks. Return to text.

[587] D. Griffin, President's Message, THE LADDER, Nov. 1956, at 2. Return to text.

[588] Del Martin, The Positive Approach, THE LADDER, Nov. 1956, at 8-9. Return to text.

[589] See Tenth Life for the Black Cat?, MATTACHINE REV., Nov. 1963, at 5-7. Return to text.

[590] See Lynch's Builders Restaurant v. O'Connell, 103 N.E.2d 531, 531 (N.Y. 1952); see also Gilmer v. Hostetter, 245 N.Y.S.2d 252, 253 (App. Div. 1963). Return to text.

[591] See Stanwood United, Inc. v. O'Connell, 126 N.Y.S.2d 345, 346-47 (App. Div. 1953) (declaring that a police officer's testimony concerning one incident was insufficient to revoke the petitioner's liquor license); People ex rel. Fasone v. Arenella, 139 N.Y.S.2d 186, 190-91 (N.Y. Magis. Ct. 1954) (requiring substantial evidence to prove a violation of an ABC law). Return to text.

[592] Paddock's Bar, Inc. v. Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control, 134 A.2d 779, 780 (N.J. Sup. Ct. 1957) (emphasis added). Return to text.

[593] See id. To the same effect were Inman v. City of Miami, 197 So. 2d 50, 51 (Fla. 3d DCA 1967); Kotteman v. Grevemberg, 96 So. 2d 601, 603 (La. 1957); Murphy's Tavern, Inc. v. Davis, 175 A.2d 1, 5 (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div. 1961); In re Freedman, 235 A.2d 624, 625 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1967). Return to text.

[594] 234 P.2d 969, 972 (Cal. 1951). Return to text.

[595] See id. at 970. Return to text.

[596] Id. at 971. Return to text.

[597] Id. Return to text.

[598] See supra text accompanying note 383. Return to text.

[599] See Nickola v. Munro, 328 P.2d 271, 275 (Cal. Dist. Ct. App. 1958); Kershaw v. Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control, 318 P.2d 494, 498 (Cal. Dist. Ct. App. 1957). Return to text.

[600] Vallerga v. Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control, 347 P.2d 909, 910 (Cal. 1959). Return to text.

[601] CAL. BUS. & PROF. CODE § 25601 (West 1954). Violation of this prohibition subjected a bar to the loss of its liquor license. See id. § 24200(b). Return to text.

[602] Vallerga, 347 P.2d at 912. Return to text.

[603] Id. at 912-13. Return to text.

[604] See, e.g., Adah Aragon, Note, Licensing Revocation: Premises of Liquor License as Meeting Place for Homosexuals Not Good Cause, 7 UCLA L. REV. 804 (1960). Return to text.

[605] See Stoumen v. Munro, 33 Cal. Rptr. 305, 316 (Dist. Ct. App. 1963); Morrell v. Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control, 22 Cal. Rptr. 405, 414 (Dist. Ct. App. 1962); Benedetti v. Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control, 9 Cal. Rptr. 525, 528 (Dist. Ct. App. 1960), overruled by Kirby v. Alcoholic Beverages Control Appeals Bd., 87 Cal. Rptr. 908, 916 (Ct. App. 1970). Return to text.

[606] Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, 315 U.S. 568, 571-72 (1942) (dictum). Return to text.

[607] See One, Inc. v. Olesen, 241 F.2d 772 (9th Cir. 1957), rev'd per curiam, 355 U.S. 371 (1958). Return to text.

[608] Id. at 775. Return to text.

[609] Id. 777-78 (referring to the short story Sappho Remembered, the poem Lord Samuel and Lord Montagu, and an advertisement for the magazine The Circle, respectively). Return to text.

[610] GINSBERG, supra note 335, at 3-4. Return to text.

[611] People v. Ferlinghetti, Decision of October 3, 1957, reprinted in GINSBERG, supra note 335, at 173-74. Return to text.

[612] 354 U.S. 476 (1957). Return to text.

[613] Id. at 487-88 n.2. Return to text.

[614] MODEL PENAL CODE § 207.10(2) (Tentative Draft No. 6, 1957). Return to text.

[615] See One, Inc. v. Olesen, 355 U.S. 371, 371 (1958) (per curiam). Return to text.

[616] See id. Return to text.

[617] 380 U.S. 684 (1959). The Court first applied the First Amendment to movies in Burstyn v. Wilson, 343 U.S. 495 (1952). Return to text.

[618] Id. (quoting N.Y. EDUC. LAW § 122-a (McKinney Supp. 1958)). Return to text.

[619] 370 U.S. 478 (1962). Return to text.

[620] See id. at 482. Return to text.

[621] Id. Justice Harlan's opinion was joined by Justice Stewart. See id at 479. Three Justices (Brennan, Warren, Douglas) concurred in the judgment on the ground that the Post Office did not have authority to ban mail. See id. at 518-19 (Brennan, J. concurring). Justice Black concurred in the result without opinion. See id. at 495. Justice Frankfurter did not participate. See id. Justice Clark dissented. See id. at 519 (Clark, J., dissenting). Return to text.

[622] People v. Richmond County News, 175 N.E.2d 681, 686 (N.Y. 1961). A similar approach was applied to censor magazines displaying nude males. See People v. G.I. Distributors, Inc., 228 N.E.2d 787, 789 (N.Y. 1967). Return to text.

[623] See United States v. Zuideveld, 316 F.2d 873, 875-76, 881 (7th Cir. 1963). Return to text.

[624] Id. at 877. Return to text.

[625] 367 U.S. 717 (1961). Return to text.

[626] See id. at 738. Return to text.

[627] 372 U.S. 58 (1963). Return to text.

[628] See id. at 70. Return to text.

[629] 380 U.S. 51, 57 (U.S. 1965). Return to text.

[630] FCC v. Pacifica Found., 36 F.C.C. 147, 149 (1964) (rejecting challenges to KFPA's broadcast of Live and Let Live, the first nationally broadcast program in which gay people spoke for themselves). Return to text.

[631] See Kameny v. Brucker, 282 F.2d 823, 823-24 (D.C. Cir. 1960) (per curiam). Return to text.

[632] See Johnson, supra note 2, at 55-56. Return to text.

[633] Id. at 55. Return to text.

[634] See Kameny v. Brucker, 365 U.S. 843, 843 (1961). Return to text.

[635] See Johnson, supra note 2, at 56. Return to text.

[636] See id. at 58-62. Return to text.

[637] CONSTITUTION OF THE MATTACHINE SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON art. II, § 1(a)- (c). Return to text.

[638] Johnson, supra note 2, at 56. Return to text.

[639] See id. Return to text.

[640] See id. at 57. Return to text.

[641] Letter from Dr. Franklin E. Kameny, President, Mattachine Soc'y of Washington, to Robert F. Kennedy, U.S. Attorney General (June 28, 1962) (on file with author). Return to text.

[642] See Johnson, supra note 2, at 57. The release argued that a strong initiative be taken to obtain for the homosexual minority the same constitutional rights guaranteed to all citizens. Return to text.

[643] MARTIN S. WEINBERG & COLIN J. WILLIAMS, MALE HOMOSEXUALS: THEIR PROBLEMS AND ADAPTATIONS 51-53 (1974). Return to text.

[644] See id. Return to text.

[645] See Scott v. Macy, 349 F.2d 182, 185 (D.C. Cir. 1965). Return to text.

[646] Id. at 184. Chief Judge Bazelon wrote only for himself; there was no majority opinion. Concurring, Judge Carl McGowan voted to overturn the government's action "solely for what seem to me to be the inadequacies, in terms of procedural fairness, of the notice given to appellant of the specific elements constituting the 'immoral conduct' relied upon as disqualifying him for all federal employment." Id. at 185 (McGowan, J., concurring). Return to text.

[647] The Model Penal Code's resolution, for example, deregulated consensual sodomy in private but left public solicitation of same-sex sodomy criminal. So long as the solicitation is accomplished discreetly or to an apparently willing listener, it would seem to have no greater third-party effects in the normal run of cases. So long as the only offended observers of solicitation were decoys planted by the state, there would seem to be only trivial differences even from a locational (bedroom versus park) view of privacy, again in most cases. Return to text.

[648] Privacy is hermaphroditic in that it is both mother and father of "don't ask, don't tell." The policy protects the privacy of gay people, who can be left alone by the state; it also protects the privacy of gay-fearing people, who can be left unbothered by gays. It is unstable, however, for the same reasons the closet was in 1961: closeted gay people are not protected from private discrimination and violence, and homophobic people are not protected from the knowledge that they are surrounded by homosexuals and cannot even tell whom to fear first. Return to text.

[649] See Samuel D. Warren & Louis D. Brandeis, The Right to Privacy, 4 HARV. L. REV. 193 (1890) (articulating policy reasons to favor privacy rights); Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1928) (Brandeis, J., dissenting) (constitutional protection against overzealous government rooted in rhetoric of privacy). Return to text.

[650] 367 U.S. 497, 522 (1961) (Harlan, J., dissenting). Return to text.

[651] Id. at 553. Return to text.

[652] 381 U.S. 479 (1965). Justice Douglas' opinion for the Court emphasized the marital features of privacy to ensure that the married plaintiffs could use contraceptives during marital sex. See id. at 485-86. Justice Harlan repeated his Poe views. See id. at 499-502 (Harlan, J., concurring). Justice Goldberg, joined by Chief Justice Warren and Justice Brennan, quoted and endorsed the "[a]dultery, homosexuality, and the like" language in his concurring opinion. Id. at 499 (Goldberg, J., concurring). Return to text.

[653] 478 U.S. 186 (1986) (upholding Georgia's consensual sodomy law, at least as applied to "homosexual sodomy"). Return to text.

[654] 116 S. Ct. 1620 (1996). Return to text.

[a] The data in this Appendix are derived from the annual reports of the District of Columbia, Baltimore, and New York City police departments. Return to text.

[b] The Washington, D.C., figures from 1950 to 1975 are sodomy complaints, rather than arrests. Because as many as half of the sodomy arrests in major cities were the result of decoy cop operations and not citizen complaints, the figures for arrests are certainly higher. Return to text.

[c] The Baltimore figures for 1966-68 are indictments brought by grand juries and hence understate the number of arrests. Return to text.

[d] The data in this Appendix are derived from the annual reports of the District of Columbia Police Department. Return to text.

[e] The data in this Appendix are derived from the annual reports of the New York City Magistrates' Courts, microformed on *ZAN-10223 (N.Y. Pub. Libr.). The Fingerprint Bureau began keeping separate records for "degenerates" in 1916, but the magistrates did not create a separate category for "degenerates" until 1922. Before 1922, "degenerates" were included with others arraigned for "disorderly conduct." Return to text.

[f] The data in this Appendix are derived from CAL. DEP'T OF MENTAL HYGIENE, supra note 42, at 78-80. Return to text.

[g] The data in this Appendix for 1945-1950 are derived from the annual reports of the San Francisco Police Department, while the data for 1958-1964 are derived from the reports of the San Francisco District Attorney. The figures for 1958-1964 are fragmentary. Return to text.

[h] The data in this Appendix are derived from the annual reports of the Los Angeles Police Department. Return to text.

[i] The data in this Appendix are derived from EMPLOYMENT OF HOMOSEXUALS IN GOVERNMENT, supra note 197, at 25. The Investigation Subcommittee's report has a separate category for cases pending in 1950, which this Appendix does not replicate. Return to text.

[j] The data in this Appendix are derived from Swanson, supra note 43, at 228-35. Return to text.

[k] This document is available at Fla. Dep't of State, Div. of Archives, ser. 1486, carton 1, folder 15, Tallahassee, Fla. Return to text.