[*] Copyright 1997 John Doar. Return to text.

[**] Managing Partner, Doar Devorkin & Rieck, New York City. Member of the California, Wisconsin, and New York state bars. A.B., Princeton University, 1944; LL.B., Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California, 1949. Practiced law in New Richmond, Wisconsin, 1950-1960. Served U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, 1960-1967. Assistant Attorney General, U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, 1965-1967. President, The Bedford-Stuyvesant Development and Service Corporation, 1968-1973. Special Counsel, Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, in connection with the Impeachment Investigation of President Richard M. Nixon, 1973-1974. Counsel to the Investigating Committee to the Judicial Council, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, in connection with the Investigation of District Judge Alcee L. Hastings, 1983-1986. Return to text.

[1] Pub. L. No. 85-315, 71 Stat. 634 (1957) (codified as amended in scattered sections of 28 and 42 U.S.C.). Return to text.

[2] See 18 U.S.C. 241-242 (1994). Return to text.

[3] See 28 U.S.C. 1343 (1994); 42 U.S.C. 1971(d) (1994). Return to text.

[4] Law Offices of St. John Barrett, Washington, D.C. B.A., Pomona College, Claremont, California; LL.B., Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California. Deputy District Attorney, Alameda County, California, 1948-54. Served U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division, 1955-1957; U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, 1957-1967. Deputy General Counsel, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1967-1977. Return to text.

[5] U.S. District Judge, District of Columbia. B.A., George Washington University; LL.B., George Washington Law School. Served U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, 1957-1965. Chief Judge, District of Columbia Superior Court, 1966-1978. Return to text.

[6] 1924-1995. B.A., University of California at Berkeley; LL.B., Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California. Served U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division, 1956-1957; U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, 1957-1972. Vice-President, The Bedford-Stuyvesant Development and Service Corporation, 1968. Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division, 1971-1972. Associate Judge, Superior Court of the District of Columbia, 1973-1983. Return to text.

[7] 1930-1981. B.A., Princeton University; LL.B., University of Texas Law School. Served U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, 1958-1969. Partner, Patterson Belknap Webb & Tyler, 1969-1981. Return to text.

[8] Law Office of Frank M. Dunbaugh, Annapolis, Maryland; Chair, Maryland Justice Policy Institute, Annapolis, Maryland. B.B.A., University of Miami; LL.B., University of Miami. Served U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, 1958-1978. Return to text.

[9] Associate Justice, Massachusetts Appeals Court. B.A., Wilkes University; LL.B., University of Pennsylvania. Served U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, 1958-1970. Acting Director, Center for Law and Education, 1970-1974. National Director, Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, Washington, D.C., 1974-1975. Partner, Foley, Hoag & Eliot, Boston, Massachusetts, 1975-1984. Associate Justice, Massachusetts Superior Court, 1984-1995. Return to text.

[10] Where a pattern or practice of racial discrimination in voting registration was found, freezing relief required that registration be conducted under the lenient standards applied to whites, such as age and residence, before the states imposed higher standards, such as the ability to interpret portions of the state constitution, to effectively bar the registration of blacks. Return to text.

[11] See United States v. Alabama, 192 F. Supp. 677, 682-83 (M.D. Ala. 1961), aff'd, 304 F.2d 583 (5th Cir. 1962), aff'd per curium, 371 U.S. 37 (1962). Return to text.

[12] See id. at 679 (finding the Board of Registrars deliberately engaged in acts that perpetuated the disparity between the numbers of blacks and whites registered to vote such that many whites who did not finish grammar school were registered, but many high school and college educated blacks were repeatedly rejected). Return to text.

[13] Professor, Yale Law School; Partner, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C.; Assistant Attorney General, U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, 1961-1964; General Counsel, IBM, 1965-1969. B.A., Yale University; LL.B., Yale Law School. Return to text.

[14] Pub. L. No. 86-449, 74 Stat. 86 (1960) (codified as amended in scattered sections of 18 and 42 U.S.C.). Return to text.

[15] See United States v. Wood, 295 F.2d 772 (5th Cir. 1961). Return to text.

[16] See United States v. Louisiana, 225 F. Supp. 353, 357 n.6 (E.D. La. 1963), aff'd, 380 U.S. 145 (1965).

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[17] See United States v. Lynd, 349 F.2d 790, 791, 794-95 (5th Cir. 1965). Return to text.

[18] 229 F. Supp. 925 (S.D. Miss. 1964), rev'd, 380 U.S. 128 (1965). Return to text.

[19] United States v. Atkins, 323 F.2d 733, 743 (5th Cir. 1963). Return to text.

[20] VICTOR S. NAVASKY, KENNEDY JUSTICE 248-49 (1971) (emphasis added). Return to text.

[21] Mississippi, 229 F. Supp. at 928. Return to text.

[22] See id. at 958. Return to text.

[23] Id. at 974 (Brown, J., dissenting). Return to text.

[24] See id. Return to text.

[25] See id. Return to text.

[26] Id. at 975. Return to text.

[27] Id. Return to text.

[28] 225 F. Supp. 353 (E.D. La. 1963), aff'd, 380 U.S. 145 (1965). Return to text.

[29] See id. at 356, 397-98. Return to text.

[30] See id. at 356. Return to text.

[31] See id. Return to text.

[32] Id. Return to text.

[33] See id. Return to text.

[34] See id. at 359-60 n.8. Return to text.

[35] Id. Return to text.

[36] See Pub. L. No. 89-110, 79 Stat. 437 (1965) (codified as amended at 42 U.S.C. 1971, 1973 to 1973bb-4 (1994)). Return to text.

[37] See H.R. 6400, 89th Cong. (1965); see also S. 1564, 89th Cong. (1965) (enacted with amendments to include language from House bill). Return to text.

[38] Voting Rights: Hearings on H.R. 6400 Before Subcomm. Number 5 of the House Comm. on the Judiciary, 89th Cong. 5 (1965) (statement of Nicholas B. Katzenbach, U.S. Attorney General). Return to text.

[39] Id. Return to text.

[40] See United States v. Alabama, 192 F. Supp. 677 (M.D. Ala. 1961), aff'd, 304 F.2d 583 (5th Cir. 1962), aff'd per curiam, 371 U.S. 37 (1962). Return to text.

[41] See United States v. Wood, 295 F.2d 772 (5th Cir. 1961). Return to text.

[42] See United States v. Lynd, 349 F.2d 790 (5th Cir. 1965). Return to text.

[43] See United States v. Louisiana, 225 F. Supp. 353 (E.D. La. 1963), aff'd, 380 U.S. 145 (1965). Return to text.

[44] See United States v. Mississippi, 229 F. Supp. 925 (S.D. Miss. 1964), rev'd, 380 U.S. 128 (1965). Return to text.

[45] See Voting Rights Act of 1965, Pub. L. No. 89-110, 79 Stat. 437 (codified as amended at 42 U.S.C. 1971, 1973 to 1973bb-4 (1994)). Return to text.

[46] See 42 U.S.C. 1973(f) (1994). Return to text.

[47] See South Carolina v. Katzenbach, 383 U.S. 301 (1966). Return to text.

[48] See United States v. Executive Comm. of the Dem. Party of Dallas County, Ala., 254 F. Supp. 537, 539 (S.D. Ala. 1966). Return to text.

[49]
Hubbard, Maceo W 1946-78 Schwelb, Frank 1962-79
Barrett, St. John 1955-67 Rosenberg, John 1962-70
Norman, David 1957-73 Ross, Alexander 1962-present
Greene, Harold 1958-65 McIntyre, Kenneth 1963-67
Owen, D. Robert 1958-69 Lyon, John 1963-68
Flannery, J. Harold 1958-70 Moore, Robert 1963-88
Dunbaugh, Frank 1958-78 Sutin, Jonathon 1964-65
Tyler, Harold 1960-61 Landsberg, Brian 1964-86
Doar, John 1960-67 Glick, Martin 1964-66
Groh, Rupert 1960-63 McCabe, William 1964-67
Marshall, Burke 1961-65 Nixon, John 1964-69
Sather, Arvid A 1961-64 Fleischer, Hugh 1964-71
Stern, Gerald 1961-64 Turner, James 1965-93
Golden, Harrison 1961-63 Nesson, Charles 1965-66
Gordon, Martin 1961-63 Pollak, Steve 1965-67
Parson, Dick 1961-66 Livingston, Gene 1965-68
Gabel, Carl 1961-88 Bingler, John H 1965-67
Martin, John 1962-64 Fiss, Owen 1966-68
Dillon, Denis 1962-63 Allen, Frank 1966-88
Henderson, Thelton 1962-63 Kirby, John J 1967-68
Kauder, Louis 1962-67 Barnett, Walter 1967-87
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