[*] The author thanks her family for their patience and encouragement. Return to text.

[1] Greco-Roman wrestler Matt Ghaffari explained, "Before, you'd get out of college and you'd have to get a job, . . . [b]ut now, with money coming from USA Wrestling and the USOC stipend program, you don't have to." Liz Robbins, Olympics Insider: Funding Keeps Athletes Returning, PLAIN DEALER (Cleveland), July 7, 1996, at D4; see infra Part III. Return to text.

[2] See Mike Spence, IOC Clause Aims to Keep Athletes out of Courtrooms, COLO. SPRINGS GAZETTE TELEGRAPH, May 26, 1996, at C2. Return to text.

[3] 36 U.S.C. 371-396 (1994). Return to text.

[4] Id. 374(3). Return to text.

[5] Id. 374(8) (emphasis added). Return to text.

[6] Id. 382(b). Return to text.

[7] See id. 395(c). Return to text.

[8] See id. 391-393. Return to text.

[9] See id. 395(c). Return to text.

[10] H.R. REP. NO. 95-1627, at 1 (1978), reprinted in U.S.C.C.A.N. 7478, 7478. Return to text.

[11] Id. at 9 (emphasis added). Return to text.

[12] See id. at 7. Return to text.

[13] See Anthony T. Povlino, Comment, Arbitration as Preventative Medicine for Olympic Ailments: The International Olympic Committee's Court of Arbitration for Sport and the Future for the Settlement of International Sporting Disputes, 8 EMORY INT'L L. REV. 347, 350 (1994). Return to text.

[14] See Edward E. Hollis, III, Note, The United States Olympic Committee and the Suspension of Athletes: Reforming Grievance Procedures Under the Amateur Sports Act of 1978, 71 IND. L.J. 183, 184 (1995). Return to text.

[15] See infra Part II.C.1. Return to text.

[16] JAMES A.R. NAFZIGER, INTERNATIONAL SPORTS LAW 233 (1988). Return to text.

[17] See Hollis, supra note 14, at 184. Return to text.

[18] See NAFZIGER, supra note 16, at 235-36. Return to text.

[19] Id. at 236. Return to text.

[20] See Hollis, supra note 14, at 185. Return to text.

[21] See Stephen A. Kaufman, Note, Issues in International Sports Arbitration, 13 B.U. INT'L L.J. 527, 531 (1995). Return to text.

[22] See infra Part II.C.1. Return to text.

[23] See 36 U.S.C. 391-393 (1994). Return to text.

[24] See id. 393(5)- (6). Return to text.

[25] See Reynolds v. International Amateur Athletic Fed'n, 23 F.3d 1110, 1112 (6th Cir. 1994). Return to text.

[26] See id. Return to text.

[27] See id. Return to text.

[28] See id. Return to text.

[29] See Reynolds v. Athletics Congress of the U.S.A., Inc., No. C-2-91-0003, 1991 WL 179760, at *11 (S.D. Ohio Mar. 19, 1991). Return to text.

[30] See Reynolds v. Athletics Congress of the U.S.A., Inc., 935 F.2d 270, 270 (6th Cir. 1991). Return to text.

[31] See Reynolds, 23 F.3d at 1112. Return to text.

[32] See id. Return to text.

[33] See id. Return to text.

[34] Id. at 1112-13. Return to text.

[35] Id. at 1113. Return to text.

[36] Id. Return to text.

[37] See id. Return to text.

[38] See id. Return to text.

[39] See id. Return to text.

[40] See id. Return to text.

[41] See id. Return to text.

[42] See id. In his order, Justice Stevens wrote, "[A] decent respect for the incomparable importance of winning a gold medal in the Olympic Games convinces me that a pecuniary award is not an adequate substitute for the intangible values for which the world's greatest athletes compete." Reynolds v. International Amateur Athletic Fed'n, 505 U.S. 1301, 1301 (1992). Return to text.

[43] See Reynolds, 23 F.3d at 1113. Return to text.

[44] See id. Return to text.

[45] See id. at 1114. The court cited "the suppression of evidence, threats levied against Reynolds and his fellow athletes, and the extension of Reynolds' suspension for an additional four months" as a basis for the punitive award. Id. Return to text.

[46] See id. Return to text.

[47] See id. at 1121. Return to text.

[48] Reynolds alleged that as a result of the IAAF drug report he lost endorsement contracts worth over $2,500,000 and appearance fees worth over $1,500,000. See id. at 1117. Return to text.

[49] See Ronald T. Rowan, Speech: Legal Issues and the Olympics, 3 VILL. SPORTS & ENT. L.J. 395, 409 (1996). Return to text.

[50] See id. at 410. Return to text.

[51] See id. Return to text.

[52] Kaufman, supra note 21, at 532 (citation omitted). Return to text.

[53] See Richard C. Reuben, And the Winner Is . . . Arbitrators to Resolve Disputes as They Arise at Olympics, A.B.A. J., Apr. 1996, at 20. Return to text.

[54] See id. Return to text.

[55] ATLANTA COMM. FOR THE OLYMPIC GAMES, ENTRY BY NAME 1 (1996). Return to text.

[56] Id. Return to text.

[57] See Spence, supra note 2. Return to text.

[58] See Mark Conrad, Arbitration Name of the Game at the Olympics, 216 N.Y.L.J. 5, 5 (1996). Return to text.

[59] Waiver Form a Must for Olympic Athletes, HOUS. CHRON., May 9, 1996, at Sports 15. Return to text.

[60] See Conrad, supra note 58, at 5. Return to text.

[61] See id. In one of the more well-known cases, figure skater Tonya Harding filed suit in Oregon state court prior to a hearing scheduled by the USOC to administratively review Harding's eligibility to compete in the 1994 Winter Olympic Games. The skater filed for "a temporary restraining order and preliminary injunction against the hearing along with $25 million in compensatory and punitive damages if she was banned from the games." The suit was eventually dropped, and Harding skated in the Olympics when the USOC withdrew its opposition to her eligibility. See Hollis, supra note 14, at 195. Return to text.

[62] For a discussion of how this new arbitration system worked at the Atlanta Games, see infra Part V. Return to text.

[63] See Rick Telander, Money Players Get a Chance at Just Rewards in Olympics, CHI.- SUN TIMES, Mar. 6, 1996, at Sports 111. Return to text.

[64] See id. Return to text.

[65] Rick Lawes, Getting Paid to Play, On and Off the Field, USA TODAY, Aug. 4, 1996, at Sports (visited Jan. 26, 1998) . Return to text.

[66] See id. NBC has reportedly agreed to two separate deals that will pay the IOC $3.55 billion to broadcast five Olympic Games between 2000 and 2008. See Christine Brennan, No Small Change for USOC, THE WASH. POST, May 12, 1996, at D1. Return to text.

[67] See Randall Lane & Peter Spiegel, The Year of the Michaels (The Highest-Paid Athletes), FORBES, Dec. 16, 1996, at 244. Return to text.

[68] See Mike Harris, USOC Helps Fill the Money Gap for Athletes, RICHMOND- TIMES DISPATCH, July 14, 1996, at D1. Return to text.

[69] See id. Return to text.

[70] See id. Return to text.

[71] See Robbins, supra note 1. Return to text.

[72] See Harris, supra note 68. Return to text.

[73] See id. Return to text.

[74] See id. Return to text.

[75] See id. Return to text.

[76] See id. The employing entities are compensated for hiring athletes that will need work-time flexibility. Return to text.

[77] See Harris, supra note 68. Return to text.

[78] See Robbins, supra note 1. Return to text.

[79] See Harris, supra note 68. Return to text.

[80] See id. Return to text.

[81] See id. Return to text.

[82] See id. Return to text.

[83] Robbins, supra note 1. Return to text.

[84] See id. Return to text.

[85] See id. Return to text.

[86] See Brennan, supra note 66. Return to text.

[87] NCAA rules on amateur status state that an individual loses amateur status and thus becomes ineligible for intercollegiate competition when the individual "[a]ccepts a promise of pay even if such pay is to be received following completion of intercollegiate athletics participation." NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSOC., RULES AND REGULATIONS, RULE 12.1.1(b) (1994). Additionally, accepting any bonus money for winning a medal would also violate the NCAA rule prohibiting payments "conditioned on the individual's or team's place finish or performance." Id. 12.1.2(j). Return to text.

[88] See id. Return to text.

[89] Mitsubishi Motor Corp. v. Soler Chrysler-Plymouth, Inc., 473 U.S. 614, 625 (1985) (quoting Moses H. Cone Mem'l Hosp. v. Mercury Constr. Corp., 460 U.S. 1, 24 (1983)). Return to text.

[90] 9 U.S.C. 1-16, 201-208, 301-307 (1994). Return to text.

[91] Mitsubishi, 473 U.S. at 625 n.14 (citations omitted). Return to text.

[92] Id. at 626 (citation omitted). Return to text.

[93] 9 U.S.C. 2 (1994). Return to text.

[94] Id. 1. Return to text.

[95] 500 U.S. 20 (1990). Return to text.

[96] Id. at 25 n.2. The issue was raised by amici curiae and was not a part of the case-in-chief. Additionally, the clause at issue was in a securities registration application but was not an actual part of Gilmer's employment contract. See id. Return to text.

[97] Id. at 33. Return to text.

[98] See id. Return to text.

[99] Id. at 36 (Stevens, J. dissenting). Return to text.

[100] Id. at 39 (alteration in original) (citation omitted). Return to text.

[101] Id. (alteration in original) (citation omitted). Return to text.

[102] See id. at 43. Return to text.

[103] Mitsubishi Motors Corp. v. Soler Chrysler Plymouth, 473 U.S. 614, 627 (1985) (quoting 9 U.S.C. 2 (1985)). Return to text.

[104] Gilmer, 500 U.S. at 33. Return to text.

[105] See William F. McHugh, Private Arbitration of Public Law Claims; Key Issues, (Feb. 23, 1996) (unpublished manuscript, on file with author). A fifth factor discussed by Professor McHugh is fraud, but, for the purposes of this paper, fraud will not be addressed. Return to text.

[106] RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF CONTRACTS 208 (1981). Return to text.

[107] 350 F.2d 445 (D.C. Cir. 1965). Return to text.

[108] Id. at 449. Return to text.

[109] Id. Return to text.

[110] McHugh, supra note 105, at 2. Return to text.

[111] Graham v. Scissor-Tail, Inc., 623 P.2d 165, 172 (Cal. 1981) (quoting Wheeler v. St. Joseph Hosp., 63 Cal. App. 3d 345, 357 (Cal. Ct. App. 1970)). Return to text.

[112] See BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY 504 (6th ed. 1990). Return to text.

[113] See RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF CONTRACTS 176 (1981). Return to text.

[114] Id. cmt. a. Return to text.

[115] See Brennan, supra note 66. For example, gold medal gymnast Dominique Moceanu was only 14 years old when she competed in the 1996 Atlanta Games. See id. Return to text.

[116] RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF CONTRACTS 14 (1981). Return to text.

[117] See id. cmt. a. Return to text.

[118] See Del Bosco v. United States Ski Ass'n., 839 F. Supp. 1470, 1474 (D. Co. 1993); Simmons v. Parkette Nat'l Gymnastic Training Ctr., 670 F. Supp. 140, 143 (E.D. Pa. 1987). Return to text.

[119] See Del Bosco, 839 F. Supp. at 1474. Return to text.

[120] 839 F. Supp. 1470 (D. Co. 1993). Return to text.

[121] Id. (citations omitted). Return to text.

[122] See id. Return to text.

[123] Id. (citation omitted). Return to text.

[124] See id. n.2. Return to text.

[125] See Simmons v. Parkette Nat'l Gymnastic Training Ctr., 670 F. Supp. 140, 144 n.4 (E.D. Pa. 1987). Return to text.

[126] NAFZIGER, supra note 16, at 233. Return to text.

[127] See Graham v. Scissor-Tail, Inc., 623 P.2d 165, 175 (Cal. 1981). In Graham, the court agreed that even absent proof of bias or prejudice, a party to a dispute is presumed to lack the impartiality necessary to settle the controversy. Moreover, allowing someone closely tied to a named party to decide disputes goes against public policy. Not only are the minimal levels of integrity required for non-judicial dispute resolution violated, but the agreement to arbitrate essentially becomes an agreement to capitulate. See id. at 175-76 (citations omitted). Return to text.

[128] See supra Part III. Return to text.

[129] See U.S. OLYMPIC COMM., 1996 UNITED STATES OLYMPIC TEAM CODE OF CONDUCT 3 (1996); U.S. OLYMPIC COMM., 1996 UNITED STATES OLYMPIC TEAM GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES FOR CODE OF CONDUCT AND TEAM SELECTION 4-5 (1996). Return to text.

[130] Letter from Ronald T. Rowan, General Counsel, United States Olympic Committee to Melissa Bitting 1 (Mar. 14, 1997) (on file with author) [hereinafter Rowan Letter]. Interestingly, the USOC is headquartered in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Del Bosco decision holds that parental approval of a child's contract does not necessarily mean that it will be held valid in a Colorado federal court. See supra notes 118-25 and accompanying text. Return to text.

[131] Rowan Letter, supra note 130, at 1. Return to text.

[132] Also, the standard Olympic entry form requiring binding arbitration through the CAS and signed by all athletes makes no mention of the possibility of parental signature, regardless of the athlete's age. See ATLANTA COMM. FOR THE OLYMPIC GAMES, supra note 55, at 1. Return to text.

[133] David A. Botwinik & Diane Rapisarda, Under the Amateur Sports Act, All Disputes Between American Athletes and the U.S. Olympic Committee Must Be Submitted to Arbitration for Resolution, NAT'L L.J., July 22, 1996, at B5. Return to text.

[134] See McHugh, supra note 105, App. E-1. Return to text.

[135] Id. App. E-3. Return to text.

[136] See id. App. E-5. Return to text.

[137] Id. (footnote omitted). Return to text.

[138] See International Olympic Comm., Arbitration and the Olympic Movement (visited Jan. 13, 1997) . Return to text.

[139] See Jill Pilgrim, The Competition Behind the Scenes at the Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games, 14 ENT. & SPORTS LAW. 1, 21 (1997). Return to text.

[140] See id. at 22. Return to text.

[141] Id. at 21. Return to text.

[142] See id. at 22. Return to text.

[143] See International Olympic Comm., supra note 138. Return to text.

[144] See id. Return to text.

[145] See id. Return to text.

[146] See id. Return to text.

[147] Id. Return to text.

[148] See id. Return to text.

[149] See Rowan, supra note 49, at 411. Return to text.

[150] See Pilgrim, supra note 139, at 22. Return to text.

[151] See Reuben, supra note 53, at 20. Return to text.

[152] See id. Return to text.

[153] See Pilgrim, supra note 139, at 22. Return to text.

[154] See id. Return to text.

[155] See id. at 23. Return to text.

[156] See id. at 22. Return to text.

[157] See id. at 22-23. Return to text.

[158] Id. at 23. Return to text.

[159] See id. Return to text.

[160] Id. (footnote omitted). Disputes involving United States athletes were handled differently because the USOC Bylaws and Code of Conduct allows the executive director of the USOC and/or the American Arbitration Association (AAA) to first hear the dispute; however, if the dispute involved one party from the United States and a foreign party not subject to AAA jurisdiction, the AHD procedures were used. See id. Return to text.

[161] See id. Return to text.

[162] See Rowan Letter, supra note 130, at 1. Return to text.

[163] See Pilgrim, supra note 139, at 23. Return to text.

[164] See id. Return to text.

[165] See Beth Harris, Olympics: Late Entry Bumps Evans from Chance at History (visited Jan. 13, 1997) 22/DN96_07_22_1nhtml>. Return to text.

[166] See Pilgrim, supra note 139, at 24. Return to text.

[167] See id. Return to text.

[168] See Harris, supra note 165. Return to text.

[169] See Associated Press, Arbitration Court Reinstates Russians (visited Jan. 13, 1997) . Return to text.

[170] See id. Return to text.

[171] See Pilgrim, supra note 139, at 26 (footnote omitted). Return to text.

[172] See id. Return to text.

[173] See id. Return to text.

[174] Id. Return to text.

[175] See id. Return to text.

[176] Id. at 27. Return to text.

[177] See supra Part II.C. Return to text.

[178] Reuben, supra note 53, at 20. Return to text.

[179] See Pilgrim, supra note 139, at 27. Return to text.

[180] See supra Part IV.D. Return to text.

[181] See McHugh, supra note 105, App. E-3. Return to text.

[182] See id. Return to text.

[183] See id. Return to text.